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32 [thirty-two]

At the restaurant 4


‫32 [سی و دو]‬

‫در رستوران 4‬


I’d like chips / French fries (am.) with ketchup.
‫یک پرس سیب زمینی سرخ کرده با کچاپ.‬
yek pors sibe zamini-e sorkh karde ba kechab.
And two with mayonnaise.
‫و دو پرس سیب زمینی سرخ کرده با سس مایونز.‬
va do pors sibe zamini-e sorkh karde ba sose mayonez.
And three sausages with mustard.
‫و سه پرس سوسیس سرخ کرده با خردل.‬
va se pors susise sorkh karde ba khardal.
What vegetables do you have?
‫چه نوع سبزی دارید؟‬
che no sabzi darid?
Do you have beans?
‫لوبیا دارید؟‬
lubia darid?
Do you have cauliflower?
‫گل کلم دارید؟‬
gol-kalam darid?
I like to eat (sweet) corn.
‫من ذرت دوست دارم بخورم.‬
man zor-rat dust daram bekhoram.
I like to eat cucumber.
‫من خیار دوست دارم بخورم.‬
man khiar dust daram bekhoram.
I like to eat tomatoes.
‫من گوجه فرنگی دوست دارم بخورم.‬
man goje farangi dust daram bekhoram.
Do you also like to eat leek?
‫پیازچه دوست دارید بخورید؟‬
piazche dust darid bekhorid?
Do you also like to eat sauerkraut?
‫ترشی کلم دوست دارید بخورید؟‬
torshi kalam dust darid bekhorid?
Do you also like to eat lentils?
‫عدس دوست دارید بخورید؟‬
adas dust darid bekhorid?
Do you also like to eat carrots?
‫هویج دوست داری بخوری؟‬
havij dust dari bekhori?
Do you also like to eat broccoli?
‫بروکلی دوست داری بخوری؟‬
brokli dust dari bekhori?
Do you also like to eat peppers?
‫فلفل سبز دوست داری بخوری؟‬
felfel-e sabz dust dari bekhori?
I don’t like onions.
‫من پیاز دوست ندارم.‬
man piaz dust nadaram.
I don’t like olives.
‫من از زیتون خوشم نمی آید.‬
man az zytun khosham nemi-ayad.
I don’t like mushrooms.
‫من از قارچ خوشم نمی آید.‬
man az gharch khosham nemi-ayad.

Tonal Languages

Most of all the languages spoken worldwide are tonal languages. With tonal languages, the pitch of the tones is crucial. They determine what meaning words or syllables have. Thus, the tone belongs firmly to the word. Most of the languages spoken in Asia are tonal languages. For example, Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese. There are also various tonal languages in Africa. Many indigenous languages in America are tonal languages as well. Indo-European languages mostly contain only tonal elements. This applies to Swedish or Serbian, for example. The number of tone pitches is varied in individual languages. Four different tones are distinguishable in Chinese. With this, the syllable ma can have four meanings. They are mother, hemp, horse and to rant. Interestingly, tonal languages also impact our hearing. Studies on absolute hearing have shown this. Absolute hearing is the ability to identify heard tones accurately. Absolute hearing occurs very rarely in Europe and North America. Fewer than 1 in 10,000 people have it. It's different with native speakers of Chinese. Here, 9 times as many people have this special ability. We all had absolute hearing when we were infants. We used it to learn to speak correctly. Unfortunately, most people lose it later on. The pitch of tones is also important in music. This is especially true for cultures that speak a tonal language. They must adhere to the melody very precisely. Otherwise a beautiful love song comes out as an absurd song!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners