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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


‫72[اثنان وسبعون]‬

‫وجوب فعل شيء‬


يجب عليه
wjib,adtir, lzm
I must post the letter.
‫علي أن أبعث الرسالة.‬
eli 'ann 'abaeath alrrisalata
I must pay the hotel.
‫علي دفع نفقات الفندق.‬
eali dafe nafaqat alfundiqa
You must get up early.
‫عليك أن تستيقظ مبكراً.‬
elik 'ann tastayqiz mbkraan
You must work a lot.
‫عليك أن تعمل كثيراً.‬
elik 'an taemal kthyraan
You must be punctual.
‫عليك أن تكون دقيقاً في المواعيد.‬
elik 'an takun dqyqaan fi almawaeid
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
‫عليه أن يملأ الخزان بالوقود.‬
elih 'ann yamla alkhizzan bialwaquda
He must repair the car.
‫عليه أن يصلح السيارة.‬
elih 'ann yasluh alssayarata
He must wash the car.
‫عليه أن يغسل السيارة.‬
elih 'ann yughsil alssayarata
She must shop.
‫عليها أن تتسوق.‬
elibaha 'ann tatasawwaqa
She must clean the apartment.
‫عليها أن تنظف الشقة.‬
eliha 'ann tunazzif alshshiqta
She must wash the clothes.
‫عليها أن تغسل الغسيل.‬
eliha 'ann tughsil alghasilu
We must go to school at once.
‫علينا أن نذهب فوراً إلى المدرسة.‬
elina 'an nadhhab fwraan 'iilaa almudrasati
We must go to work at once.
‫علينا أن نذهب فوراً إلى العمل.‬
elina 'an nadhhab fwraan 'iilaa aleamli
We must go to the doctor at once.
‫علينا أن نذهب فوراً إلى الطبيب.‬
elina 'an nadhhab fwraan 'iilaa alttabiba
You must wait for the bus.
‫عليكم أن تنتظروا الحافلة.‬
elikum 'ann tantaziruu alhafilata
You must wait for the train.
‫عليكم أن تنتظروا القطار.‬
elikum 'ann tantaziruu alqitara
You must wait for the taxi.
‫عليكم أن تنتظروا سيارة الأجرة.‬
elikum 'ann tantaziruu sayarat al'ajrati

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

______ is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. ______ is the native language of 5 million people. Modern ______ is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient ______. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient ______ was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The ______ semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. ______ text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns ______ learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!


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