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36 [thirty-six]

Public transportation


‫36 [سی و شش]‬

‫عبور و مرور درون شهری ‬


Where is the bus stop?
‫ایستگاه اتوبوس کجاست؟‬
istgahe otobos kojast?
Which bus goes to the city centre / center (am.)?
‫کدام اتوبوس به مرکز شهر می رود؟‬
kodam otobos be markaze shahr miravad?
Which bus do I have to take?
‫چه خطی (چه اتوبوسی) باید سوار شوم؟‬
che khat-ti (che otobosi) bayad savar shavam?
Do I have to change?
‫باید وسیله نقلیه را عوض کنم؟‬
bayad vasile naghli-ye ra avaz konam?
Where do I have to change?
‫کجا باید وسیله نقلیه را عوض کنم؟‬
koja bayad vasile naghli-ye ra avaz konam?
How much does a ticket cost?
‫قیمت یک بلیط چند است؟‬
ghymate yek beli chand ast?
How many stops are there before downtown / the city centre?
‫تا مرکز شهر چند ایستگاه است؟‬
ta markaze shahr chand istgah ast?
You have to get off here.
‫شما باید اینجا پیاده شوید.‬
shoma bayad inja piade shavid.
You have to get off at the back.
‫شما باید از قسمت عقب ماشین پیاده شوید.‬
shoma bayad az ghesmate aghabe mashin piade shavid.
The next train is in 5 minutes.
‫متروی (زیرمینی) بعدی 5 دقیقه دیگر می آید.‬
metro-ye (zir zamini) badi panj daghighe digar mi-ayad.
The next tram is in 10 minutes.
‫متروی بعدی 10 دقیقه دیگر می آید.‬
metro-ye badi dah daghighe digar mi-ayad.
The next bus is in 15 minutes.
‫اتوبوس بعدی 15 دقیقه دیگر می آید.‬
otobose badi panzdeh daghighe digar mi-ayad.
When is the last train?
‫آخرین مترو (زیرزمینی) کی حرکت می کند؟‬
akharin metro (zir zamini) key harekat mikonad?
When is the last tram?
‫آخرین مترو کی حرکت می کند؟‬
akharin metro key harekat mikonad?
When is the last bus?
‫آخرین اتوبوس کی حرکت می کند؟‬
akharin otobos key harekat mikonad?
Do you have a ticket?
‫شما بلیط دارید؟‬
shoma belit darid?
A ticket? – No, I don’t have one.
‫بلیط؟– نه ندارم.‬
beli? na nadaram.
Then you have to pay a fine.
‫پس باید جریمه بپردازید.‬
pas bayad jarime bepardazid.

The development of language

Why we speak with each other is clear. We want to exchange ideas and understand each other. How exactly language originated, on the other hand, is less clear. Various theories exist about this. What's certain is that language is a very old phenomenon. Certain physical traits were a prerequisite for speaking. They were necessary in order for us to form sounds. People as far back as the Neanderthals had the ability to apply their voice. In this way, they could distinguish themselves from animals. Additionally, a loud, firm voice was important for defence. A person could threaten or frighten enemies with it. Back then, tools had already been made and fire had been discovered. This knowledge had to be passed along somehow. Speech was also important for hunting in groups. As early as 2 million years ago there was a simple understanding among people. The first linguistic elements were signs and gestures. But people wanted to be able to communicate in the dark too. More importantly, they also had the need to talk to each other without looking. Therefore, the voice developed, and it replaced the gestures. Language in today's sense is at least 50,000 years old. When Homo sapiens left Africa, they distributed language around the world. The languages separated from each other in the different regions. That is to say, various language families came into being. However, they only contained the fundamentals of language systems. The first languages were much less complex than languages today. They were further developed through grammar, phonology and semantics. It could be said that different languages have different solutions. But the problem was always the same: How do I show what I'm thinking?

Guess the language!

Brazilian ______ is counted among the Romance languages. It arose from European ______. It travelled as far as South America long ago through ******al's colonial politics. Today Brazil is the largest ______-speaking nation in the world. Approximately 190 million people speak Brazilian ______ as their native language. The language has great influence in other South American countries too. There is even a hybrid language that contains ______ and Spanish. Earlier, Brazil tended to use European ______.

Starting in the 1930s, a new awareness awakened within Brazilian culture. Brazilians were proud of their language and wanted to accentuate its peculiarities. There were, however, repeated efforts to keep the two languages together. For example, an agreement has since been made over a common orthography. Today the biggest difference between the two forms is in the pronunciation. The Brazilian vocabulary also contains a few "Indianisms" that are absent in Europe. Discover this exciting language - it is one of the most important in the world!


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