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17 [seventeen]

Around the house


17 [ਸਤਾਰਾਂ]

ਘਰ ਦੇ ਆਲੇ – ਦੁਆਲੇ


Our house is here.
ਇਹ ਘਰ ਮੇਰਾ ਹੈ।
iha ghara mērā hai.
The roof is on top.
ਛੱਤ ਉੱਪਰ ਹੈ।
Chata upara hai.
The basement is below.
ਤਹਿਖਾਨਾ ਹੇਠਾਂ ਹੈ।
Tahikhānā hēṭhāṁ hai.
There is a garden behind the house.
ਬਗੀਚਾ ਘਰ ਦੇ ਪਿੱਛੇ ਹੈ।
Bagīcā ghara dē pichē hai.
There is no street in front of the house.
ਘਰ ਦੇ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਸੜਕ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੈ।
Ghara dē sāhamaṇē saṛaka nahīṁ hai.
There are trees next to the house.
ਘਰ ਦੇ ਕੋਲ ਦਰੱਖਤ ਹੈ।
Ghara dē kōla darakhata hai.
My apartment is here.
ਇਹ ਮੇਰਾ ਨਿਵਾਸ ਹੈ।
Iha mērā nivāsa hai.
The kitchen and bathroom are here.
ਇੱਥੇ ਰਸੋਈਘਰ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ਼ਨਾਨਘਰ ਹੈ।
Ithē rasō'īghara atē iśanānaghara hai.
The living room and bedroom are there.
ਇੱਥੇ ਬੈਠਕ ਅਤੇ ਸੌਣ ਵਾਲਾ ਕਮਰਾ ਹੈ।
Ithē baiṭhaka atē sauṇa vālā kamarā hai.
The front door is closed.
ਘਰ ਦਾ ਦਰਵਾਜ਼ਾ ਬੰਦ ਹੈ।
Ghara dā daravāzā bada hai.
But the windows are open.
ਪਰ ਖਿੜਕੀਆਂ ਖੁਲ੍ਹੀਆਂ ਹਨ।
Para khiṛakī'āṁ khul'hī'āṁ hana.
It is hot today.
ਅੱਜ ਗਰਮੀ ਹੈ।
Aja garamī hai.
We are going to the living room.
ਅਸੀਂ ਬੈਠਕ ਵਿੱਚ ਜਾ ਰਹੇ ਹਾਂ।
Asīṁ baiṭhaka vica jā rahē hāṁ.
There is a sofa and an armchair there.
ਓਥੇ ਇੱਕ ਸੋਫਾ ਅਤੇ ਇੱਕ ਕੁਰਸੀ ਹੈ।
Ōthē ika sōphā atē ika kurasī hai.
Please, sit down!
ਕਿਰਪਾ ਕਰਕੇ ਬੈਠੋ!
Kirapā karakē baiṭhō!
My computer is there.
ਇੱਥੇ ਮੇਰਾ ਕੰਪਿਊਟਰ ਹੈ।
Ithē mērā kapi'ūṭara hai.
My stereo is there.
ਮੇਰਾ ਸਟੀਰੀਓ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੈ।
Mērā saṭīrī'ō ithē hai.
The TV set is brand new.
ਟੈਲੀਵੀਜ਼ਨ ਸੈੱਟ ਇੱਕਦਮ ਨਵਾਂ ਹੈ।
Ṭailīvīzana saiṭa ikadama navāṁ hai.

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Words and vocabulary

Every language has its own vocabulary. This consists of a certain number of words. A word is an independent linguistic unit. Words always have a distinct meaning. This distinguishes them from sounds or syllables. The number of words is different in every language. English, for example, has many words. It's even known as the World Champion in the category of vocabulary. The English language supposedly has more than one million words today. The Oxford English Dictionary has more than 600,000 words in it. Chinese, Spanish and Russian have much fewer. The vocabulary of a language is also dependent on its history. English has been influenced by many other languages and cultures. As a result, the English vocabulary has increased considerably. But even today the English vocabulary continues to get larger. Experts estimate that 15 new words are added every day. These originate from new media more than anywhere else. Scientific terminology is not counted here. For chemical terminology alone contains thousands of words. Longer words are used less than shorter words in almost every language. And most speakers only use a few words. That is why we decide between active and passive vocabulary. Passive vocabulary contains words that we understand. But we use them seldom or not at all. Active vocabulary contains the words that we use on a regular basis. A few words suffice for simple conversations or texts. In English, you only need around 400 words and 40 verbs for that. So don't worry if your vocabulary is limited!

Guess the language!

______ is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. ______ is the native language of 5 million people. Modern ______ is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient ______. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient ______ was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The ______ semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. ______ text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns ______ learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!

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