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13 [thirteen]



‫13 [ثلاثة عشر]‬

‫الأنشطة والأعمال‬


What does Martha do?
‫ماذا تعمل مارتا؟‬
mmadha taemal marta
She works at an office.
‫هي تشتغل في المكتب؟.‬
hi tashtaghil fi almaktab
She works on the computer.
‫إنها تشتغل على الحاسوب.‬
'innaha tashtaghil ealaa alhasub
Where is Martha?
‫أين مارتا؟‬
ayn marta
At the cinema.
‫فى السينما.‬
faa alssinma
She is watching a film.
‫إنهاتشاهد فيلمًا.‬
'innahatashahid fylmana
What does Peter do?
‫ماذا يعمل بيتر؟‬
madha yaemal bytr
He studies at the university.
‫إنه يدرس في الجامعة.‬
'innah yadrus fi aljamieati
He studies languages.
‫هو يدرس لغات.‬
hu yadrus laghata
Where is Peter?
‫أين بيتر؟‬
ayn bytr
At the café.
‫فى المقهى.‬
faa almuqhaa
He is drinking coffee.
‫إنه يشرب قهوة.‬
'innah yashrab qahwata
Where do they like to go?
‫إلى أين تودون الذهاب؟‬
'iilaa 'ayn tuaddun aldhhab
To a concert.
‫إلى الحفلة الموسيقية.‬
'iilaa alhaflat almawsiqiata
They like to listen to music.
‫هم يحبون سماع الموسيقى.‬
hum yuhibbun samae almusiqaa
Where do they not like to go?
‫إلى أين لا يرغبون الذهاب؟‬
'iilaa 'ayn la yarghabun aldhdhahaba
To the disco.
‫إلى المرقص.‬
'iilaa almurqus
They do not like to dance.
‫هم لا يحبون الرقص.‬
hum la yuhibbun alrraqsa

Creole Languages

Did you know that German is spoken in the South Pacific? It's really true! In parts of Papua New Guinea and Australia, people speak Unserdeutsch. It is a Creole language. Creole languages emerge in language contact situations. That is, when multiple different languages encounter one another. By now, many Creole languages are almost extinct. But worldwide 15 million people still speak a Creole language. Creole languages are always native languages. It's different with Pidgin languages. Pidgin languages are very simplified forms of speech. They are only good for very basic communication. Most Creole languages originated in the colonial era. Therefore, Creole languages are often based on European languages. One characteristic of Creole languages is a limited vocabulary. Creole languages have their own phonology too. The grammar of Creole languages is heavily simplified. Complicated rules are simply ignored by the speakers. Each Creole language is an important component of national identity. As a result, there is a lot of literature written in Creole languages. Creole languages are especially interesting for linguists. This is because they demonstrate how languages develop and later die out. So the development of language can be studied in Creole languages. They also prove that languages can change and adapt. The discipline used to research Creole languages is Creolistics, or Creology. One of the best-known sentences in the Creole language comes from Jamaica. Bob Marley made it world famous – do you know it? It's No woman, no cry! (= No, woman, don't cry!)

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the ****o-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for ______. Another hallmark of ______ is its many vowels.

______ grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken ______ are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes ______ not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about ______ is that it is so completely logical!


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners