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5 [five]

Countries and Languages


‫5 [پنج]‬

‫کشورها و زبانها‬


John is from London.
‫جان اهل لندن است.‬
jan ahle landan ast.
London is in Great Britain.
‫لندن در انگلستان قرار دارد.‬
landan dar engelestan gharar darad.
He speaks English.
‫او (مرد) انگلیسی صحبت میکند.‬
oo engelisi sohbat mikonad.
Maria is from Madrid.
‫ماریا اهل مادرید است.‬
marya ahle madrid ast.
Madrid is in Spain.
‫مادرید در اسپانیا قرار دارد.‬
madrid dar espania gharar darad,
She speaks Spanish.
‫او اسپانیایی صحبت میکند.‬
oo espania-ye sohbat mikonad.
Peter and Martha are from Berlin.
‫پیتر و مارتا اهل برلین هستند.‬
peter va marta ahle berlin hastand.
Berlin is in Germany.
‫برلین در آلمان قرار دارد.‬
berlin dar alman gharar darad.
Do both of you speak German?
‫هر دوی شما آلمانی صحبت میکنید؟‬
har do-ye shoma almani sohbat mikonid?
London is a capital city.
‫لندن یک پایتخت است.‬
landan yek payetakht ast.
Madrid and Berlin are also capital cities.
‫مادرید و برلین هم پایتخت هستند.‬
madrid va berlin ham payetakht hastand.
Capital cities are big and noisy.
‫پایتخت ها بزرگ و پر سروصدا هستند.‬
payetakht-ha bozorg va por sar-o seda hastand.
France is in Europe.
‫فرانسه در اروپا قرار دارد.‬
farance dar orupa gharar darad.
Egypt is in Africa.
‫مصر در آفریقا قرار دارد.‬
mesr dar afrigha gharar darad.
Japan is in Asia.
‫ژاپن در آسیا قرار دارد.‬
japon dar asia gharar darad.
Canada is in North America.
‫کانادا در آمریکای شمالی قرار دارد.‬
kanada dar amrika-ye shemali gharar darad.
Panama is in Central America.
‫پاناما در آمریکای مرکزی قرار دارد.‬
panama dar amrika-ye markazi gharar darad.
Brazil is in South America.
‫برزیل در آمریکای جنوبی قرار دارد.‬
berezil dar amrika-ye jonubi gharar darad.

Languages and dialects

There are 6,000 to 7,000 different languages worldwide. The number of dialects is of course much higher. But what is the difference between language and dialect? Dialects always have a clearly localized tone. They belong to the regional language varieties. This means dialects are a language form with the narrowest reach. As a general rule, dialects are only spoken, not written. They form their own linguistic system. And they follow their own rules. Theoretically, every language can have several dialects. All dialects fall under the standard language of a country. The standard language is understood by all the people of a country. With it, even speakers of different dialects can communicate with each other. Almost all dialects are becoming less important. You hardly hear dialects being spoken in cities anymore. The standard language is usually spoken at work as well. Therefore, dialect speakers are often said to be simple and uneducated. And yet they can be found at all social levels. So dialect speakers are no less intelligent than others. Quite the opposite! Those who speak in dialect have many advantages. In a language course, for example. Dialect speakers know that there are different linguistic forms. And they have learned to switch quickly between linguistic styles. Therefore, dialect speakers possess a higher competence for variation. They can sense which linguistic style fits with a certain situation. This has even been scientifically proven. So: Have courage in using dialect – it's worth it!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the South Slavic languages. About 10 million people speak ______. The majority of those people, of course, live in ********. ______ is spoken in other countries as well, however. Among those are Ukraine and Moldova. ______ is one of the oldest documented Slavic languages. It has many specific features too. The similarity to Albanian and Romanian is striking.

These languages are not Slavic languages. There are many parallels nevertheless. Therefore, all of these languages are also denoted as Balkan languages. They have a lot in common, although they are not related to each other. ______ verbs can take on many forms. There is also no infinitive in ______. If you want to learn this interesting language you will soon discover many new things!


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners