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76 [seventy-six]

giving reasons 2

 


76 [ਛਿਅੱਤਰ]

ਕਿਸੇ ਗੱਲ ਦਾ ਤਰਕ ਦੇਣਾ 2

 

 
Why didn’t you come?
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਏ?
tusīṁ ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'ē?
I was ill.
ਮੈਂ ਬੀਮਾਰ ਸੀ।
Maiṁ bīmāra sī.
I didn’t come because I was ill.
ਮੈਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆ / ਆਈ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਮੈਂ ਬੀਮਾਰ ਸੀ।
Maiṁ nahīṁ ā'i'ā/ ā'ī ki'uṅki maiṁ bīmāra sī.
 
 
 
 
Why didn’t she come?
ਉਹ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਈ?
Uha ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'ī?
She was tired.
ਉਹ ਥੱਕ ਗਈ ਸੀ।
Uha thaka ga'ī sī.
She didn’t come because she was tired.
ਉਹ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਈ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਉਹ ਥੱਕ ਗਈ ਹੈ।
Uha nahīṁ ā'ī ki'uṅki uha thaka ga'ī hai.
 
 
 
 
Why didn’t he come?
ਉਹ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆ?
Uha ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'i'ā?
He wasn’t interested.
ਉਸਦਾ ਮਨ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ।
Usadā mana nahīṁ kara rihā sī.
He didn’t come because he wasn’t interested.
ਉਹ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਉਸਦੀ ਇੱਛਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ?
Uha nahīṁ ā'i'ā ki'uṅki usadī ichā nahīṁ sī?
 
 
 
 
Why didn’t you come?
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਸਾਰੇ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਏ?
Tusīṁ sārē ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'ē?
Our car is damaged.
ਸਾਡੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਖਰਾਬ ਹੈ।
Sāḍī gaḍī kharāba hai.
We didn’t come because our car is damaged.
ਅਸੀਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਏ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਸਾਡੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਖਰਾਬ ਹੈ।
Asīṁ nahīṁ ā'ē ki'uṅki sāḍī gaḍī kharāba hai.
 
 
 
 
Why didn’t the people come?
ਉਹ ਲੋਕ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਏ?
Uha lōka ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'ē?
They missed the train.
ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਛੁੱਟ ਗਈ ਸੀ।
Uhanāṁ dī gaḍī chuṭa ga'ī sī.
They didn’t come because they missed the train.
ਉਹ ਲੋਕ ਇਸ ਲਈ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਏ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਛੁੱਟ ਗਈ ਸੀ।
Uha lōka isa la'ī nahīṁ ā'ē ki'uṅki uhanāṁ dī gaḍī chuṭa ga'ī sī.
 
 
 
 
Why didn’t you come?
ਤੂੰ ਕਿਉਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆ / ਆਈ?
Tū ki'uṁ nahīṁ ā'i'ā/ ā'ī?
I was not allowed to.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਆਉਣ ਦੀ ਆਗਿਆ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ।
Mainū ā'uṇa dī āgi'ā nahīṁ sī.
I didn’t come because I was not allowed to.
ਮੈਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆ / ਆਈ ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਆਉਣ ਦੀ ਆਗਿਆ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ।
Maiṁ nahīṁ ā'i'ā/ ā'ī ki'uṅki mainū ā'uṇa dī āgi'ā nahīṁ sī.
 
 
 
 
 

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The indigenous languages of America

Many different languages are spoken in America. English is the main language in North America. Spanish and Portuguese dominate in South America. All of these languages came to America from Europe. Before colonization, other languages were spoken there. These languages are known as the indigenous languages of America. Until today, they haven't been explored substantially. The variety of these languages is enormous. It is estimated that there are about 60 language families in North America. In South America there could even be as many as 150. Additionally, there are many isolated languages. All of these languages are very different. They exhibit only a few common structures. Therefore, it is difficult to classify the languages. The reason for their differences lies in the history of America. America was colonized in several stages. The first people came to America over more than 10,000 years ago. Each population brought its language to the continent. The indigenous languages are most similar to Asian languages. The situation regarding America's ancient languages isn't the same everywhere. Many Native American languages are still in use in South America. Languages like Guarani or Quechua have millions of active speakers. By contrast, many languages in North America are almost extinct. The culture of the Native Americans of North America was long oppressed. In the process, their languages were lost. But interest in them has increased in the last few decades. There are many programs that aim to nurture and protect the languages. So they could have a future after all…

Guess the language!

The ______ language is surely one of the most fascinating. Many people find the writing system especially interesting. It is comprised of Chinese symbols and two syllabaries. Another characteristic of ______ is that it has many dialects. These differ from one another significantly in some cases. Thus it is possible that two speakers from different regions do not understand each other. ______ has a melodic accent. If a word needs to be emphasized it is not spoken louder.

The pitches of the sounds are varied. Approximately 130 million people speak ______. Naturally, the majority of those live in *****. There are also large groups of ______ speakers in Brazil and North America. They are the descendants of ______ emigrants. There are relatively few true second language speakers. That is exactly what should motivate us to learn this exciting language!

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