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13 [thirteen]



‫13 [تیرہ]‬



What does Martha do?
‫مارتھا کیا کرتی ہے؟‬
martha kya karti hai?
She works at an office.
‫وہ دفتر میں کام کرتی ہے-‬
woh daftar mein kaam karti hai -
She works on the computer.
‫وہ کمپیوٹر پہ کام کرتی ہے-‬
woh computer pay kaam karti hai -
Where is Martha?
‫مارتھا کہاں ہے؟‬
martha kahan hai?
At the cinema.
‫سنیما میں-‬
cinema min-
She is watching a film.
‫وہ فلم دیکھ رہی ہے-‬
woh film dekh rahi hai -
What does Peter do?
‫پیٹر کیا کرتا ہے؟‬
peter kya karta hai?
He studies at the university.
‫وہ یونیورسٹی میں پڑھتا ہے-‬
woh university mein parhta hai -
He studies languages.
‫وہ زبانیں سیکھ رہا ہے-‬
woh zubanain seekh raha hai -
Where is Peter?
‫پیٹر کہاں ہے؟‬
peter kahan hai?
At the café.
‫کیفے میں-‬
kife min-
He is drinking coffee.
‫وہ کافی پی رہا ہے-‬
woh kaafi pi raha hai -
Where do they like to go?
‫وہ لوگ کہاں جانا پسند کرتے ہیں؟‬
woh log kahan jana pasand karte hain?
To a concert.
‫کنسرٹ میں-‬
concert min-
They like to listen to music.
‫وہ موسیقی شوق سے سنتے ہیں-‬
woh moseeqi shoq se suntay hin-
Where do they not like to go?
‫وہ لوگ کہاں جانا پسند نہیں کرتے ہیں؟‬
woh log kahan jana pasand nahi karte hain?
To the disco.
‫ڈسکو میں-‬
dsko min-
They do not like to dance.
‫انہیں ناچنے کا شوق نہیں ہے-‬
inhen nachnay ka shoq nahi hai -

Creole Languages

Did you know that German is spoken in the South Pacific? It's really true! In parts of Papua New Guinea and Australia, people speak Unserdeutsch. It is a Creole language. Creole languages emerge in language contact situations. That is, when multiple different languages encounter one another. By now, many Creole languages are almost extinct. But worldwide 15 million people still speak a Creole language. Creole languages are always native languages. It's different with Pidgin languages. Pidgin languages are very simplified forms of speech. They are only good for very basic communication. Most Creole languages originated in the colonial era. Therefore, Creole languages are often based on European languages. One characteristic of Creole languages is a limited vocabulary. Creole languages have their own phonology too. The grammar of Creole languages is heavily simplified. Complicated rules are simply ignored by the speakers. Each Creole language is an important component of national identity. As a result, there is a lot of literature written in Creole languages. Creole languages are especially interesting for linguists. This is because they demonstrate how languages develop and later die out. So the development of language can be studied in Creole languages. They also prove that languages can change and adapt. The discipline used to research Creole languages is Creolistics, or Creology. One of the best-known sentences in the Creole language comes from Jamaica. Bob Marley made it world famous – do you know it? It's No woman, no cry! (= No, woman, don't cry!)

Guess the language!

Finnish is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the Finno-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for Finnish. Another hallmark of Finnish is its many vowels.

Finnish grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken Finnish are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes Finnish not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about Finnish is that it is so completely logical!


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book2 English UK - Urdu for beginners