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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


87 [ਸਤਾਸੀ]

ਭੂਤਕਾਲਵਾਚਕ ਸਹਾਇਕ ਕਿਰਿਆਂਵਾਂ 1


We had to water the flowers.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਪੌਦਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਪਾਣੀ ਦੇਣਾ ਪਿਆ।
sānū paudi'āṁ nū pāṇī dēṇā pi'ā.
We had to clean the apartment.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਘਰ ਠੀਕ ਕਰਨਾ ਪਿਆ।
Sānū ghara ṭhīka karanā pi'ā.
We had to wash the dishes.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਬਰਤਨ ਧੋਣੇ ਪਏ।
Sānū baratana dhōṇē pa'ē.
Did you have to pay the bill?
ਕੀ ਤੈਨੂੰ ਬਿਲ ਦੇਣਾ ਪਿਆ?
Kī tainū bila dēṇā pi'ā?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
ਕੀ ਤੈਨੂੰ ਪ੍ਰਵੇਸ਼ – ਸ਼ੁਲਕ ਦੇਣਾ ਪਿਆ?
Kī tainū pravēśa – śulaka dēṇā pi'ā?
Did you have to pay a fine?
ਕੀ ਤੈਨੂੰ ਜੁਰਮਾਨਾ ਦੇਣਾ ਪਿਆ?
Kī tainū juramānā dēṇā pi'ā?
Who had to say goodbye?
ਕੌਣ ਜਾਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ?
Kauṇa jāṇā cāhudā hai?
Who had to go home early?
ਕਿਸਨੇ ਘਰ ਜਲਦੀ ਜਾਣਾ ਹੈ?
Kisanē ghara jaladī jāṇā hai?
Who had to take the train?
ਕਿਸਨੇ ਟ੍ਰੇਨ ਫੜਨੀ ਹੈ?
Kisanē ṭrēna phaṛanī hai?
We did not want to stay long.
ਅਸੀਂ ਹੋਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਰਹਿਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Asīṁ hōra nahīṁ rahiṇā cāhudē sī.
We did not want to drink anything.
ਅਸੀਂ ਕੁਝ ਪੀਣਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Asīṁ kujha pīṇā nahīṁ cāhudē sī.
We did not want to disturb you.
ਅਸੀਂ ਪ੍ਰੇਸ਼ਾਨ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Asīṁ prēśāna nahīṁ karanā cāhudē sī.
I just wanted to make a call.
ਮੈਂ ਫੋਨ ਕਰਨ ਹੀ ਵਾਲਾ ਸੀ / ਵਾਲੀ ਸੀ।
Maiṁ phōna karana hī vālā sī/ vālī sī.
I just wanted to call a taxi.
ਮੈਂ ਟਕਸੀ ਮੰਗਵਾਉਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਸੀ / ਚਾਹੁੰਦੀ ਸੀ।
Maiṁ ṭakasī magavā'uṇā cāhudā sī/ cāhudī sī.
Actually I wanted to drive home.
ਅਸਲ ਵਿੱਚ ਮੈਨ ਘਰ ਜਾਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਸੀ / ਚਾਹੁੰਦੀ ਸੀ।
Asala vica maina ghara jāṇā cāhudā sī/ cāhudī sī.
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਿਆ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀ ਆਪਣੇ ਪਤੀ ਨੂੰ ਫੋਨ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Mainū lagi'ā ki tusī āpaṇē patī nū phōna karanā cāhudē sī.
I thought you wanted to call information.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਿਆ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਸੂਚਨਾ ਸੇਵਾ ਨੂੰ ਫੋਨ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Mainū lagi'ā ki tusīṁ sūcanā sēvā nū phōna karanā cāhudē sī.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਿਆ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਪੀਜ਼ਾ ਮੰਗਵਾਉਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸੀ।
Mainū lagi'ā ki tusīṁ pīzā magavā'uṇā cāhudē sī.

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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