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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


72 [тIокIищрэ пшIыкIутIурэ]

ШIэгъэн фае


шIэгъэн фае
shIjegjen fae
I must post the letter.
Сэ письмэ згъэхьын фае.
Sje pis'mje zgjeh'yn fae.
I must pay the hotel.
Сэ хьакIэщыпкIэр стын фае.
Sje h'akIjeshhypkIjer styn fae.
You must get up early.
О жьэу укъэтэджын фае.
O zh'jeu ukjetjedzhyn fae.
You must work a lot.
О Iофыбэ пшIэн фае.
O Iofybje pshIjen fae.
You must be punctual.
Шъыпкъагъэ пхэлъын фае.
Shypkagje phjelyn fae.
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
Ащ (хъулъфыгъ) гъэстыныпхъэ ищыкIагъ.
Ashh (hulfyg) gjestynyphje ishhykIag.
He must repair the car.
Ащ (хъулъфыгъ) машинэр ыгъэцэкIэжьын фае.
Ashh (hulfyg) mashinjer ygjecjekIjezh'yn fae.
He must wash the car.
Ащ (хъулъфыгъ) машинэр ытхьакIын фае.
Ashh (hulfyg) mashinjer yth'akIyn fae.
She must shop.
Ар (бзылъфыгъ) щэфэн фае.
Ar (bzylfyg) shhjefjen fae.
She must clean the apartment.
Ащ (бзылъфыгъ) унэр зэIихын фае.
Ashh (bzylfyg) unjer zjeIihyn fae.
She must wash the clothes.
Ар (бзылъфыгъ) гыкIэн фае.
Ar (bzylfyg) gykIjen fae.
We must go to school at once.
Тэ джыдэдэм еджапIэм тыкIон фае.
Tje dzhydjedjem edzhapIjem tykIon fae.
We must go to work at once.
Тэ джыдэдэм IофышIэ тыкIон фае.
Tje dzhydjedjem IofyshIje tykIon fae.
We must go to the doctor at once.
Тэ джыдэдэм врачым дэжь тыкIон фае.
Tje dzhydjedjem vrachym djezh' tykIon fae.
You must wait for the bus.
Автобусым шъо шъуежэн фае.
Avtobusym sho shuezhjen fae.
You must wait for the train.
МэшIокум шъо шъуежэн фае.
MjeshIokum sho shuezhjen fae.
You must wait for the taxi.
Таксиим шъо шъуежэн фае.
Taksiim sho shuezhjen fae.

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…


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