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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


৭২ [বাহাত্তর]

আবশ্যিক কাজকর্ম


I must post the letter.
আমাকে অবশ্যই চিঠিটা পাঠাতে হবে ৷
āmākē abaśya'i ciṭhiṭā pāṭhātē habē
I must pay the hotel.
আমাকে অবশ্যই হোটেলের টাকা শোধ(পরিশোধ) করতে হবে ৷
āmākē abaśya'i hōṭēlēra ṭākā śōdha(pariśōdha) karatē habē
You must get up early.
তোমাকে অবশ্যই তাড়াতড়ি জেগে উঠতে হবে ৷
tōmākē abaśya'i tāṛātaṛi jēgē uṭhatē habē
You must work a lot.
তোমাকে অবশ্যই অনেক কাজ করতে হবে ৷
tōmākē abaśya'i anēka kāja karatē habē
You must be punctual.
তোমাকে অবশ্যই সময়ানুবর্তী হতে হবে ৷
tōmākē abaśya'i samaẏānubartī hatē habē
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
তাকে (ছেলে) অবশ্যই জ্বালানি / পেট্রোল নিতে হবে ৷
tākē (chēlē) abaśya'i jbālāni / pēṭrōla nitē habē
He must repair the car.
তাকে (ছেলে) অবশ্যই গাড়ী সারাতে হবে ৷
tākē (chēlē) abaśya'i gāṛī sārātē habē
He must wash the car.
তাকে (ছেলে) অবশ্যই গাড়ী ধুতে হবে ৷
tākē (chēlē) abaśya'i gāṛī dhutē habē
She must shop.
তাকে (মেয়ে) অবশ্যই কেনাকাটা করতে হবে ৷
tākē (mēẏē) abaśya'i kēnākāṭā karatē habē
She must clean the apartment.
তাকে অবশ্যই এপার্টমেন্ট পরিষ্কার করতে হবে ৷
tākē abaśya'i ēpārṭamēnṭa pariṣkāra karatē habē
She must wash the clothes.
তাকে অবশ্যই জামাকাপড় ধুতে হবে ৷
tākē abaśya'i jāmākāpaṛa dhutē habē
We must go to school at once.
আমাদের অবশ্যই এখনই বিদ্যালয়ে যেতে হবে ৷
āmādēra abaśya'i ēkhana'i bidyālaẏē yētē habē
We must go to work at once.
আমাদের অবশ্যই এখনই কাজে যেতে হবে ৷
āmādēra abaśya'i ēkhana'i kājē yētē habē
We must go to the doctor at once.
আমাদের অবশ্যই এখনই ডাক্তারের কাছে যেতে হবে ৷
āmādēra abaśya'i ēkhana'i ḍāktārēra kāchē yētē habē
You must wait for the bus.
তোমাদের অবশ্যই বাসের জন্য অপেক্ষা করতে হবে ৷
tōmādēra abaśya'i bāsēra jan'ya apēkṣā karatē habē
You must wait for the train.
তোমাদের অবশ্যই ট্রেনের জন্য অপেক্ষা করতে হবে ৷
tōmādēra abaśya'i ṭrēnēra jan'ya apēkṣā karatē habē
You must wait for the taxi.
তোমাদের অবশ্যই ট্যাক্সির জন্য অপেক্ষা করতে হবে ৷
tōmādēra abaśya'i ṭyāksira jan'ya apēkṣā karatē habē

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. Scientists have been interested in these reasons for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!


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