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68 [sixty-eight]

big – small

 


‫68 [اڑسٹھ]‬

‫بڑا – چھوٹا‬

 

 
big and small
‫بڑا اور چھوٹا‬
bara aur chhota
The elephant is big.
‫ہاتھی بڑا ہے -‬
hathi bara hai -
The mouse is small.
‫چوہا چھوٹا ہے -‬
chooha chhota hai -
 
 
 
 
dark and bright
‫اندھیرا – اجالہ (روشن)‬
andhera ujaal ( roshan )
The night is dark.
‫رات اندھیری ہے -‬
raat andheri hai -
The day is bright.
‫دن روشن ہے -‬
din roshan hai -
 
 
 
 
old and young
‫بوڑھا اور جوان‬
boorha aur jawan
Our grandfather is very old.
‫ہمارے دادا بہت بوڑھے ہیں -‬
hamaray dada bohat boorhay hain -
70 years ago he was still young.
‫ستر سال پہلے وہ جوان تھے -‬
sattar saal pehlay woh jawan thay -
 
 
 
 
beautiful and ugly
‫خوبصورت اور بدصورت‬
khobsorat aur badsoorat
The butterfly is beautiful.
‫تتلی خوبصورت ہے -‬
titlee khobsorat hai -
The spider is ugly.
‫مکڑی بدصورت ہے -‬
makri badsoorat hai -
 
 
 
 
fat and thin
‫موٹا اور دبلا‬
mota aur dubla
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat.
‫سو کلو وزن کی عورت موٹی ہوتی ہے -‬
so kilo ki aurat mouti hoti hai -
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin.
‫پچاس کلو وزن کا مرد دبلا ہوتا ہے -‬
pachaas kilo ka mard dubla hota hai -
 
 
 
 
expensive and cheap
‫مہنگا اور سستا‬
mehanga aur sasta
The car is expensive.
‫گاڑی مہنگی ہے -‬
gaari mehngi hai -
The newspaper is cheap.
‫اخبار سستا ہے -‬
akhbar sasta hai -
 
 
 
 


Code-switching

More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching. In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…

Guess the language!

Finnish is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the Finno-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for Finnish. Another hallmark of Finnish is its many vowels.

Finnish grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken Finnish are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes Finnish not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about Finnish is that it is so completely logical!

 


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book2 English UK - Urdu for beginners