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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


৮৭ [সাতাশি]

অতীতকালবাচক সাহায্যকারী ক্রিয়া ১


We had to water the flowers.
আমাদের গাছে জল দিতে হয়েছিল ৷
āmādēra gāchē jala ditē haẏēchila
We had to clean the apartment.
আমাদের অ্যাপার্টমেন্ট বা ঘর পরিষ্কার করতে হয়েছিল ৷
āmādēra ayāpārṭamēnṭa bā ghara pariṣkāra karatē haẏēchila
We had to wash the dishes.
আমাদের বাসন মাজতে হয়েছিল ৷
āmādēra bāsana mājatē haẏēchila
Did you have to pay the bill?
তোমাদের কি বিল দিতে / বিল পরিশোধ করতে হয়েছিল?
tōmādēra ki bila ditē / bila pariśōdha karatē haẏēchila?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
তোমাদের কি প্রবেশ শুল্ক দিতে হয়েছিল?
Tōmādēra ki prabēśa śulka ditē haẏēchila?
Did you have to pay a fine?
তোমাদের কি জরিমানা দিতে হয়েছিল?
Tōmādēra ki jarimānā ditē haẏēchila?
Who had to say goodbye?
কে বিদায় জানাতে / চলে যেতে চাইছিল?
Kē bidāẏa jānātē / calē yētē cā'ichila?
Who had to go home early?
কাকে আগে বাড়ী যেতে হয়েছিল?
Kākē āgē bāṛī yētē haẏēchila?
Who had to take the train?
কাকে ট্রেনে যেতে হয়েছিল?
Kākē ṭrēnē yētē haẏēchila?
We did not want to stay long.
আমরা বেশী দিন থাকতে চাইছিলাম না ৷
Āmarā bēśī dina thākatē cā'ichilāma nā
We did not want to drink anything.
আমরা কোনোকিছু পান করতে চাইছিলাম না ৷
āmarā kōnōkichu pāna karatē cā'ichilāma nā
We did not want to disturb you.
আমরা বিরক্ত করতে চাইছিলাম না ৷
āmarā birakta karatē cā'ichilāma nā
I just wanted to make a call.
আমি শুধুমাত্র একটা ফোন করতে চেয়েছিলাম ৷
āmi śudhumātra ēkaṭā phōna karatē cēẏēchilāma
I just wanted to call a taxi.
আমি একটা ট্যাক্সি ডাকতে চেয়েছিলাম ৷
āmi ēkaṭā ṭyāksi ḍākatē cēẏēchilāma
Actually I wanted to drive home.
আসলে আমি গাড়ী চালিয়ে বাড়ী যেতে চেয়েছিলাম ৷
āsalē āmi gāṛī cāliẏē bāṛī yētē cēẏēchilāma
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
আমি ভেবেছিলাম যে তুমি তোমার স্ত্রীকে ফোন করতে চেয়েছিলে ৷
āmi bhēbēchilāma yē tumi tōmāra strīkē phōna karatē cēẏēchilē
I thought you wanted to call information.
আমি ভেবেছিলাম যে তুমি তথ্যকেন্দ্রে ফোন করতে চেয়েছিলে ৷
āmi bhēbēchilāma yē tumi tathyakēndrē phōna karatē cēẏēchilē
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
আমি ভেবেছিলাম যে তুমি পিৎজা অর্ডার করতে চেয়েছিলে ৷
āmi bhēbēchilāma yē tumi piṯjā arḍāra karatē cēẏēchilē

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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book2 English US - Bengali for beginners