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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


‫72 [هفتادودو]‬

‫باید کاری را انجام دادن‬


I must post the letter.
‫من باید نامه را بفرستم.‬
man bâyad nâme râ befrestam.
I must pay the hotel.
‫من باید پول هتل را پرداخت کنم.‬
man bâyad poole hotel râ pardâkht namâyam.
You must get up early.
‫تو باید زود از خواب بلند شوی.‬
to bâyad sobhe zud az khâb boland shavi.
You must work a lot.
‫تو باید خیلی کار کنی.‬
to bâyad khyli kâr koni.
You must be punctual.
‫تو باید وقت شناس باشی.‬
to bâyad vaght shenâs bâshi.
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
‫او باید بنزین بزند (در باک بنزین بریزد).‬
oo bâyad benzin bezanad (dar bâk benzin berizad).
He must repair the car.
‫او باید ماشین را تعمیر کند.‬
oo bâyad mâshin râ ta-amir konad.
He must wash the car.
‫او باید ماشین را بشوید.‬
oo bâyad mâshin râ beshu-yad.
She must shop.
‫او (مونث) باید خرید کند.‬
oo (mo-anas) bâyad kharid konad.
She must clean the apartment.
‫او (مونث) باید آپارتمان را تمیز کند.‬
oo (mo-anas) bâyad khâne râ tamiz konad.
She must wash the clothes.
‫او (مونث) باید لباسها را بشوید.‬
oo bâyad lebâs-hâ râ beshu-yad.
We must go to school at once.
‫ما باید چند لحظه ی دیگر به مدرسه برویم.‬
mâ bâyad chand lahze-ye digar be madrese beravim.
We must go to work at once.
‫ما باید چند لحظه ی دیگر سر کار برویم.‬
mâ bâyad chand lahze-ye digar sare kâr beravim.
We must go to the doctor at once.
‫ما باید چند لحظه ی دیگر پیش دکتر برویم.‬
mâ bâyad chand lahze-ye digar pishe doktor beravim.
You must wait for the bus.
‫شما باید منتظر اتوبوس باشید.‬
shomâ bâyad montazere otobus bâshid.
You must wait for the train.
‫شما باید منتظر قطار باشید.‬
shomâ bâyad montazere ghatâr bâshid.
You must wait for the taxi.
‫شما باید منتظر تاکسی باشید.‬
shomâ bâyad montazere tâxi bâshid.

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!


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book2 English US - Persian for beginners