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92 [ninety-two]

Subordinate clauses: that 2


ਅੱਧਾ-ਲੱਕੜ ਘਰ



I’m angry that you snore.
mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ ghurāṛē māradē hō.
I’m angry that you drink so much beer.
Mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ ainī bī'ara pīndē hō.
I’m angry that you come so late.
ਸਮਾਰਕ ਸਤੰਭ
Mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ bahuta dēra nāla ā'undē hō.
I think he needs a doctor.
ਦਫਤਰੀ ਇਮਾਰਤ
Mainū lagadā hai ki usanū ḍākaṭara dī lōṛa hai.
I think he is ill.
Mainū lagadā hai ki uha bīmāra hai.
I think he is sleeping now.
Mainū lagadā hai ki uha huṇa sauṁ rihā hai.
We hope that he marries our daughter.
Sānū āsa hai ki uha sāḍī bēṭī nāla vi'āha karēgā.
We hope that he has a lot of money.
ਉੱਚੀ ਇਮਾਰਤ
Sānū āsa hai ki usadē kōla bahuta paisā hai.
We hope that he is a millionaire.
ਝੂਲਾ ਪੁਲ
Sānū āsa hai ki uha lakhapatī hai.
I heard that your wife had an accident.
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki tuhāḍī patanī nāla hādasā vāpara gi'ā.
I heard that she is in the hospital.
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki uha hasapatāla vica hai.
I heard that your car is completely wrecked.
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki tērī gaḍī pūrī ṭuṭa ga'ī hai.
I’m happy that you came.
Mainū khuśī hai ki tusīṁ ā'ē.
I’m happy that you are interested.
Mainū khuśī hai ki tuhānū dilacasapī hai.
I’m happy that you want to buy the house.
Mainū khuśī hai ki tusīṁ ghara kharīdaṇā cāhudē hō.
I’m afraid the last bus has already gone.
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki ākharī basa pahilāṁ hī jā cukī hai.
I’m afraid we will have to take a taxi.
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki sānū ṭaikasī laiṇī pavēgī.
I’m afraid I have no more money.
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki mērē kōla paisē nahīṁ hana.

From gestures to speech

When we speak or listen, our brain has a lot to do. It has to process the linguistic signals. Gestures and symbols are linguistic signals too. They existed even before human speech. Some symbols are understood in all cultures. Others have to be learned. They can't be understood just by looking at them. Gestures and symbols are processed like speech. And they are processed in the same area of the brain! A new study has proven this. Researchers tested several test subjects. These test subjects had to view various video clips. While they were watching the clips, their brain activity was measured. In one group, the clips expressed various things. These occurred through movements, symbols and speech. The other test group watched different video clips. These videos were nonsense clips. Speech, gestures and symbols didn't exist. They had no meaning. In the measurements, the researchers saw what was processed where. They could compare the brain activity of the test subjects. Everything that had meaning was analyzed in the same area. The results of this experiment are very interesting. They show how our brain has learned language over time. At first, man communicated with gestures. Later he developed a language. The brain had to learn, therefore, to process speech like gestures. And evidently it simply updated the old version …

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Eastern *****ce languages. It is the native language of about 30 million people. These people live primarily in ******* and Moldova. ______ is also the official language of the Republic of Moldova. There are also sizeable ______-speaking communities in Serbia and Ukraine, however. ______ originated from Latin. The *****s formerly maintained two provinces in the region surrounding the Danube. ______ is most closely related to Italian.

Therefore, ______s can understand Italians very well for the most part. The opposite is not always the case. This is due to the fact that ______ contains many Slavic words. The phonology was influenced by the neighboring Slavic linguistic area. As a result, the ______ alphabet has a few special symbols. ______ is written like it is spoken. And it still exhibits many similarities with the structure of ancient Latin … That is precisely what makes the discovery of this language so exciting!


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book2 English UK - Punjabi for beginners