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68 [sixty-eight]

big – small


68 [అరవై ఎనిమిది]



big and small
పెద్దది మరియు చిన్నది
Peddadi mariyu cinnadi
The elephant is big.
ఏనుగు పెద్దగా ఉంటుంది
Ēnugu peddagā uṇṭundi
The mouse is small.
ఎలుక చిన్నదిగా ఉంటుంది
Eluka cinnadigā uṇṭundi
dark and bright
The night is dark.
రాత్రి చీకటిగా ఉంటుంది
Rātri cīkaṭigā uṇṭundi
The day is bright.
పగలు వెలుతురు వెదజిమ్ముతుంటుంది
Pagalu veluturu vedajim'mutuṇṭundi
old and young
Our grandfather is very old.
మా తాతగారు చాలా ముసలి వారు
Mā tātagāru cālā musali vāru
70 years ago he was still young.
70 ఏళ్ళ క్రితం ఆయన ఇంకా పడుచుగానే ఉన్నారు
70 Ēḷḷa kritaṁ āyana iṅkā paḍucugānē unnāru
beautiful and ugly
The butterfly is beautiful.
సీతాకోకచిలుక అందంగా ఉంది
Sītākōkaciluka andaṅgā undi
The spider is ugly.
సాలీడు కురూపిగా ఉంది
Sālīḍu kurūpigā undi
fat and thin
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat.
వంద కిలోలు తూగే ఆడది లావుగా ఉన్నట్లు లెక్క
Vanda kilōlu tūgē āḍadi lāvugā unnaṭlu lekka
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin.
యాభై కిలోలు తూగే మొగవాడు సన్నగా ఉన్నట్లు లెక్క
Yābhai kilōlu tūgē mogavāḍu sannagā unnaṭlu lekka
expensive and cheap
The car is expensive.
కారు ఖరీదైనది
Kāru kharīdainadi
The newspaper is cheap.
సమాచారపత్రం చవకైనది
Samācārapatraṁ cavakainadi


More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching. In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…

Guess the language!

Finnish is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the Finno-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for Finnish. Another hallmark of Finnish is its many vowels.

Finnish grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken Finnish are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes Finnish not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about Finnish is that it is so completely logical!


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