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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


‫87 [هشتاد و هفت]‬

‫زمان گذشته ی افعال معین 1‬


We had to water the flowers.
‫ما باید به گلها آب می‌دادیم.‬
mâ bâyad be golhâ âb midâdim.
We had to clean the apartment.
‫ما باید آپارتمان را تمیز می‌کردیم.‬
mâ bâyad âpârtemân râ moratab mikardim.
We had to wash the dishes.
‫ما باید ظرفها را می‌شستیم.‬
mâ bâyad zorufe ghazâ râ mishostim.
Did you have to pay the bill?
‫آیا شما مجبور بودید صورت حساب را پرداخت کنید؟‬
âyâ shomâ majbur be pardâkhte surat-hesâb budid?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
‫آیا شما مجبور بودید ورودی را پرداخت کنید؟‬
âyâ shomâ majbur be pardâkhte vorudi budid?
Did you have to pay a fine?
‫آیا شما مجبور بودید جریمه را پرداخت کنید؟‬
âyâ shomâ majbur be pardâkhte jarime budid?
Who had to say goodbye?
‫کی باید خداحافظی می‌کرد؟‬
che kasi bâyad khodâ-hâfezi mikard?
Who had to go home early?
‫کی باید زود به خانه می‌رفت؟‬
che kasi bâyad zud be khâne miraft?
Who had to take the train?
‫کی باید با قطار می‌رفت؟‬
che kasi bâyad bâ ghatâr miraft?
We did not want to stay long.
‫ما نمی‌خواستیم زیاد بمانیم.‬
mâ nemi-khâstim mod-date ziâdi bemânim.
We did not want to drink anything.
‫ما نمی‌خواستیم چیزی بنوشیم.‬
mâ nemi-khâstim chizi benushim.
We did not want to disturb you.
‫ما نمی‌خواستیم مزاحم بشویم.‬
mâ nemi-khâstim mozâhem beshavim.
I just wanted to make a call.
‫من فقط می‌خواستم تلفن کنم.‬
man mikhâstam alân telefon konam.
I just wanted to call a taxi.
‫من می‌خواستم تاکسی سفارش بدهم.‬
man mikhâstam tâxi sefâresh bedaham.
Actually I wanted to drive home.
‫چون می‌خواستم به خانه بروم.‬
chun mikhâstam be khâne beravam.
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
‫من فکر کردم تو می‌خواستی به همسرت تلفن کنی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhâsti be hamsarat telefon koni.
I thought you wanted to call information.
‫من فکر کردم تو می‌خواستی به اطلاعات تلفن کنی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhâsti be etelâ-ât telefon koni.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
‫من فکر کردم تو می‌خواستی پیتزا سفارش بدهی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhâsti yek pitzâ sefâresh dahi.

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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