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5 [five]

Countries and Languages


‫5 [پنج]‬

‫کشورها و زبانها‬


John is from London.
‫جان اهل لندن است.‬
jân ahle landan ast.
London is in Great Britain.
‫لندن در انگلستان است.‬
landan dar engelestân gharâr dârad.
He speaks English.
‫او (مرد) انگلیسی صحبت می‌کند.‬
oo engelisi sohbat mikonad.
Maria is from Madrid.
‫ماریا اهل مادرید است.‬
mâryâ ahle mâdrid ast.
Madrid is in Spain.
‫مادرید در اسپانیا است.‬
mâdrid dar espâniâ gharâr dârad,
She speaks Spanish.
‫او اسپانیایی صحبت می‌کند.‬
oo espâni-â-i sohbat mikonad.
Peter and Martha are from Berlin.
‫پیتر و مارتا اهل برلین هستند.‬
peter va mârtâ ahle berlin hastand.
Berlin is in Germany.
‫برلین در آلمان است.‬
berlin dar âlmân gharâr dârad.
Do both of you speak German?
‫هر دوی شما آلمانی صحبت می‌کنید؟‬
har do-ye shomâ âlmâni sohbat mikonid?
London is a capital city.
‫لندن یک پایتخت است.‬
landan yek pâyetakht ast.
Madrid and Berlin are also capital cities.
‫مادرید و برلین هم پایتخت هستند.‬
mâdrid va berlin ham pâyetakht hastand.
Capital cities are big and noisy.
‫شهرهای ‫پایتخت، بزرگ و پرسروصدا هستند.‬
pâyetakht-hâ bozorg va por sar-o sedâ hastand.
France is in Europe.
‫فرانسه در اروپا است.‬
farânce dar orupâ gharâr dârad.
Egypt is in Africa.
‫مصر در آفریقا است.‬
mesr dar âfrighâ gharâr dârad.
Japan is in Asia.
‫ژاپن در آسیا است.‬
jâpon dar âsiâ gharâr dârad.
Canada is in North America.
‫کانادا در آمریکای شمالی است.‬
kânâdâ dar âmirikâ-ye shomâli gharâr dârad.
Panama is in Central America.
‫پاناما در آمریکای مرکزی است.‬
pânâmâ dar âmrikâ-ye markazi gharâr dârad.
Brazil is in South America.
‫برزیل در آمریکای جنوبی است.‬
berezil dar âmrikâ-ye jonubi gharâr dârad.

Languages and dialects

There are 6,000 to 7,000 different languages worldwide. The number of dialects is of course much higher. But what is the difference between language and dialect? Dialects always have a clearly localized tone. They belong to the regional language varieties. This means dialects are a language form with the narrowest reach. As a general rule, dialects are only spoken, not written. They form their own linguistic system. And they follow their own rules. Theoretically, every language can have several dialects. All dialects fall under the standard language of a country. The standard language is understood by all the people of a country. With it, even speakers of different dialects can communicate with each other. Almost all dialects are becoming less important. You hardly hear dialects being spoken in cities anymore. The standard language is usually spoken at work as well. Therefore, dialect speakers are often said to be simple and uneducated. And yet they can be found at all social levels. So dialect speakers are no less intelligent than others. Quite the opposite! Those who speak in dialect have many advantages. In a language course, for example. Dialect speakers know that there are different linguistic forms. And they have learned to switch quickly between linguistic styles. Therefore, dialect speakers possess a higher competence for variation. They can sense which linguistic style fits with a certain situation. This has even been scientifically proven. So: Have courage in using dialect – it's worth it!

Guess the language!

Bulgarian is counted among the South Slavic languages. About 10 million people speak Bulgarian. The majority of those people, of course, live in Bulgaria. Bulgarian is spoken in other countries as well, however. Among those are Ukraine and Moldova. Bulgarian is one of the oldest documented Slavic languages. It has many specific features too. The similarity to Albanian and Romanian is striking.

These languages are not Slavic languages. There are many parallels nevertheless. Therefore, all of these languages are also denoted as Balkan languages. They have a lot in common, although they are not related to each other. Bulgarian verbs can take on many forms. There is also no infinitive in Bulgarian. If you want to learn this interesting language you will soon discover many new things!


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