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1 [ਇੱਕ]



I and you
ਮੈਂ ਅਤੇ ਤੂੰ
maiṁ atē tū
both of us
ਅਸੀਂ ਦੋਵੇਂ
asīṁ dōvēṁ
he and she
ਉਹ ਅਤੇ ਉਹ
uha atē uha
they both
ਉਹ ਦੋਵੇਂ
uha dōvēṁ
the man
the woman
the child
a family
my family
ਮੇਰਾ ਪਰਿਵਾਰ
mērā parivāra
My family is here.
ਮੇਰਾ ਪਰਿਵਾਰ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੈ।
mērā parivāra ithē hai.
I am here.
ਮੈਂ ਇੱਥੇ ਹਾਂ।
Maiṁ ithē hāṁ.
You are here.
ਤੂੰ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੈਂ।
Tū ithē haiṁ.
He is here and she is here.
ਉਹ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਉਹ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੈ।
Uha ithē hai atē uha ithē hai.
We are here.
ਅਸੀਂ ਇੱਥੇ ਹਾਂ।
Asīṁ ithē hāṁ.
You are here.
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਸਾਰੇ ਇੱਥੇ ਹੋ।
Tusīṁ sārē ithē hō.
They are all here.
ਉਹ ਸਭ ਇੱਥੇ ਹਨ।
Uha sabha ithē hana.

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Using languages to fight Alzheimer's

Those who want to stay mentally fit should learn languages. Language skills can protect against dementia. Numerous scientific studies have proven this. The age of the learner doesn't play a role at all. What's important is that the brain is regularly exercised. Learning vocabulary activates different areas of the brain. These areas control important cognitive processes. Therefore, people who are multilingual are more attentive. They can also concentrate better. However, multilingualism has additional advantages. Multilingual people can make better decisions. That is, they come to a decision faster. This is because their brain has learned to choose. It always knows at least two terms for one thing. Each of these terms is a feasible option. Therefore, multilingual people are constantly making decisions. Their brains have practice in choosing between many things. And this training doesn't just benefit the speech centre of the brain. Many areas of the brain profit from multilingualism. Language skills also mean better cognitive control. Of course, language skills will not prevent dementia. However, in multilingual people the disease progresses slower. And their brains seem better able to counterbalance the effects. In language learners symptoms of dementia appear in a weaker form. Confusion and forgetfulness are less serious. Therefore, old and young profit equally from language acquisition. And: With each language it gets easier to learn a new one. So, we should all be reaching for the dictionary instead of medicine!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Germanic languages. However, it is not closely related to any other language in the group. No one knows exactly how ______ came into being. Today it is mainly spoken in ******* and in Kosovo. It is the native language of around 6 million people. ______ is divided into two large dialect groups. The Shkumbin River is the dividing line between the northern and southern dialects. In some areas there is a noticeable difference between the two.

The written form of ______ wasn't developed until the 20th century. The language is written with Latin letters. The grammar is somewhat similar to Greek and Romanian. It is also possible to find parallels to South Slavic languages. All of these similarities must have arisen from contact with those languages. If you are interested in languages, you should definitely learn ______! It is a unique language!

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book2 English UK - Punjabi for beginners