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84 [eighty-four]

Past tense 4


‫84 [هشتاد و چهار]‬

‫ زمان گذشته 4‬


to read
I read.
‫من خوانده ام.‬
man khande-am.
I read the whole novel.
‫من تمام رمان را خوانده ام.‬
man tamame roman ra khande-am.
to understand
I understood.
‫من فهمیده ام.‬
man fahmide-am.
I understood the whole text.
‫من تمام متن را فهمیده ام.‬
man tamame matn ra fahmide-am.
to answer
‫پاسخ دادن‬
pasokh dadan
I answered.
‫من پاسخ داده ام.‬
man pasokh dade-am.
I answered all the questions.
‫من به تمامی سوالات پاسخ داده ام.‬
man be tamami-ye soalat pasokh dade-am.
I know that – I knew that.
‫من آن را می دانم – من آن را می دانستم.‬
man an ra midanam - man an ra midanestam.
I write that – I wrote that.
‫من آن را می نویسم – من آن را نوشته ام.‬
man an ra minevisam - man an ra neveshta-am.
I hear that – I heard that.
‫من آن را می شنوم – من آن را شنیده ام.‬
man an ra meshanavam - man an ra shenide-am.
I’ll get it – I got it.
‫من آن را می گیرم – من آن را گرفته ام.‬
man an ra migiram - man an ra gerefta-am.
I’ll bring that – I brought that.
‫من آن را می آورم – من آن را آورده ام.‬
man an ra mi-avaram - man an ra avarde-am.
I’ll buy that – I bought that.
‫من آن را می خرم – من آن را خریده ام.‬
man an ra mi-kharam - man an ra kharide-am.
I expect that – I expected that.
‫من منتظر آن هستم – من منتظر آن بوده ام.‬
man montazere an hastam - man montazere an bude-am.
I’ll explain that – I explained that.
‫من آن را توضیح می دهم – من آن را توضیح داده ام.‬
man an ra tozih midaham - man an ra tozih dade-am.
I know that – I knew that.
‫من آن را می شناسم – من آن را می شناختم.‬
man an ra mishenasam - man an ra shenakhte-am.

Negative words aren't translated into the native language

When reading, multilinguals translate subconsciously into their native language. This happens automatically; that is, the readers do it without realizing. It could be said that the brain functions like a simultaneous translator. But it doesn't translate everything! One study has shown that the brain has a built-in filter. This filter decides what gets translated. And it appears that the filter ignores certain words. Negative words aren't translated into the native language. Researchers selected native speakers of Chinese for their experiment. All test subjects spoke English as their second language. The test subjects had to rate various English words. These words had different emotional content. There were positive, negative and neutral terms. While the test subjects read the words, their brains were examined. That is, the researchers measured the electrical brain activity. In doing so, they could see how the brain worked. Certain signals are generated during the translation of words. They indicate that the brain is active. However, the test subjects showed no activity with the negative words. Only the positive or neutral terms were translated. Researchers don't yet know why this is. Theoretically, the brain has to process all words the same. It could be, however, that the filter quickly examines each word. It is analyzed while still being read in the second language. If a word is negative, the memory is blocked. In other words, it can't think of the word in the native language. People can react very sensitively to words. Perhaps the brain wants to protect them from emotional shock…

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of around 2 million people. It is counted among the South Slavic languages. It is most closely related to Bulgarian. Speakers of both languages can communicate with each other easily. The two languages differ from each other more in their written forms. There have always been many different ethnic groups in *********. Naturally, this is also apparent in the vernacular. It has been influenced by numerous other languages.

The neighboring country of Serbia has especially influenced the ______ language. The vocabulary contains many terms from Russian, Turkish, and English. Such linguistic variety does not exist in many countries. That is why it has been difficult for ______ to establish itself as its own language. ______ literature has especially suffered from this situation. ______ is now considered an established standard language. For this reason, it is an important part of the ______ identity.


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners