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68 [sixty-eight]

big – small

 


‫68 [شصت و هشت]‬

‫بزرگ – کوچک‬

 

 
big and small
‫بزرگ و کوچک‬
bozorg va kuchak
The elephant is big.
‫فیل بزرگ است.‬
fil bozorg ast.
The mouse is small.
‫موش کوچک است.‬
mush kuchak ast.
 
 
 
 
dark and bright
‫تاریک و روشن‬
târik va roshan
The night is dark.
‫شب تاریک است.‬
shab târik ast.
The day is bright.
‫روز روشن است.‬
rooz roshan ast.
 
 
 
 
old and young
‫پیر و جوان‬
pir va javân
Our grandfather is very old.
‫پدربزرگمان خیلی پیر است.‬
pedar-bozorgemân khyli pir ast.
70 years ago he was still young.
‫او 70 سال پیش هنوز جوان بود.‬
oo haftâd sâl pish hanuz javân bud.
 
 
 
 
beautiful and ugly
‫زیبا و زشت‬
zibâ va zesht
The butterfly is beautiful.
‫پروانه زیباست.‬
parvâne zibâst.
The spider is ugly.
‫عنکبوت زشت است.‬
ankabut zesht ast.
 
 
 
 
fat and thin
‫چاق و لاغر‬
châgh va lâghar
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat.
‫یک زن با 100 کیلو چاق است.‬
yek zan bâ sad kiloo châgh ast.
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin.
‫یک مرد با 50 کیلو لاغر است.‬
yek mard bâ panjâh kiloo lâghar ast.
 
 
 
 
expensive and cheap
‫گران و ارزان‬
gerân va arzân
The car is expensive.
‫اتوموبیل گران است.‬
otomobil gerân ast.
The newspaper is cheap.
‫روزنامه ارزان است.‬
ruznâme arzân ast.
 
 
 
 
 


Code-switching

More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching. In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the ****o-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for ______. Another hallmark of ______ is its many vowels.

______ grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken ______ are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes ______ not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about ______ is that it is so completely logical!

 

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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners