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58 [fifty-eight]

Parts of the body


‫58 [پنجاه و هشت]‬

‫اعضای بدن‬


I am drawing a man.
‫من یک مرد طراحی می کنم.‬
man yek mard tar-râhi mikonam.
First the head.
‫ابتدا سر‬
ebtedâ sar
The man is wearing a hat.
‫این مرد یک کلاه بر سر دارد.‬
in mard yek kolâh bar sar dârad.
One cannot see the hair.
‫موها را نمی توان دید.‬
muhâ râ nemitavân did.
One cannot see the ears either.
‫گوشها را هم نمی توان دید.‬
gush-hâ râ ham nemitavân did.
One cannot see his back either.
‫کمر را هم نمی توان دید.‬
kamar râ ham nemitavân did.
I am drawing the eyes and the mouth.
‫من چشم ها و دهان را طراحی می کنم.‬
man cheshm-hâ va dahân râ tar-râhi mikonam.
The man is dancing and laughing.
‫آن مرد می رقصد و می خندد.‬
ân mard miragh-sad va mikhan-dad
The man has a long nose.
‫آن مرد یک بینی دراز دارد.‬
ân mard yek bini-ye derâz dârad.
He is carrying a cane in his hands.
‫او یک عصا در دستهایش دارد.‬
oo yek asâ dar dast-hâyash dârad.
He is also wearing a scarf around his neck.
‫او همچنین یک شال گردن به دورگردنش دارد.‬
oo hamchenin yek shâl-gardan be dore gardanash dârad.
It is winter and it is cold.
‫زمستان است و هوا سرد است.‬
zemestân ast va havâ sard ast.
The arms are athletic.
‫بازو ها قوی هستند.‬
bâzu-hâ ghavi hastand.
The legs are also athletic.
‫پاها هم قوی هستند.‬
pâ-hâ ham ghavi hastand.
The man is made of snow.
‫این مرد از برف درست شده است.‬
in mard az barf dorost shode ast.
He is neither wearing pants nor a coat.
‫او شلوار یا پالتو نپوشیده است.‬
oo shalvâr yâ pâlto napushide ast.
But the man is not freezing.
‫اما او سردش نیست (نمی لرزد).‬
ammâ oo sardash nist (nemilarzad).
He is a snowman.
‫او یک آدم برفی است.‬
oo yek âdam barfi ast.

The language of our ancestors

Modern languages can be analyzed by linguists. Various methods are used to do so. But how did people speak thousands of years ago? It is much more difficult to answer this question. Despite this, scientists have been busy researching for years. They would like to explore how people spoke earlier. In order to do this, they attempt to reconstruct ancient speech forms. American scientists have now made an exciting discovery. They analyzed more than 2,000 languages. In particular they analyzed the sentence structure of the languages. The results of their study were very interesting. About half of the languages had the S-O-V sentence structure. That is to say, the sentences are ordered by subject, object and verb. More than 700 languages follow the pattern S-V-O. And about 160 languages operate according to the V-S-O system. Only about 40 languages use the V-O-S pattern. 120 languages display a hybrid. On the other hand, O-V-S and O-S-V are distinctly rarer systems. The majority of the analyzed languages use the S-O-V principle. Persian, Japanese and Turkish are some examples. Most living languages follow the S-V-O pattern, however. This sentence structure dominates the Indo-European language family today. Researchers believe that the S-O-V model was used earlier. All languages are based on this system. But then the languages diverged. We don't yet know how that happened. However, the variation of sentence structures must have had a reason. Because in evolution, only that which has an advantage prevails…

Guess the language!

______ is one of the Indo-Iranian languages. It is the native language of about 200 million people. More than 140 million of those people live in Bangladesh. There are also approximately 75 million speakers in India. Additional speakers are found in Malaysia, Nepal and Saudi Arabia. ______ is thus one of the most spoken languages of the world. The language has its own writing system. There are even distinct symbols for numbers.

Nowadays, however, Arabic digits are used most of the time. ______ syntax follows strict rules. The subject comes first, then the object, and finally the verb. There are no grammatical genders. Nouns and adjectives also vary only slightly. That is a good thing for everyone that wants to learn this important language. And as many as possible should do so!


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners