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13 [thirteen]



‫13 [سیزده]‬



What does Martha do?
‫مارتا چکار می کند؟‬
mârtâ che-kâr mikonad?
She works at an office.
‫او در اداره کار می کند.‬
oo dar edâre kâr mikonad.
She works on the computer.
‫او با کامپیوتر کار می کند.‬
oo bâ kâmputer kâr mikonad.
Where is Martha?
‫مارتا کجاست؟‬
mârtâ kojâst?
At the cinema.
‫در سینما.‬
dar sinemâ.
She is watching a film.
‫او یک فیلم تماشا می کند.‬
oo yek film tamâshâ mikonad.
What does Peter do?
‫پیتر چکار می کند؟‬
peter che-kâr mikonad?
He studies at the university.
‫او در دانشگاه تحصیل می کند.‬
oo dar dânesh-gâh tahsil mikonad.
He studies languages.
‫او در رشته زبان تحصیل می کند.‬
oo dar reshte-ye zabân tahsil mikonad.
Where is Peter?
‫پیتر کجاست؟‬
peter kojâst?
At the café.
‫در کافه.‬
dar kâfe.
He is drinking coffee.
‫او (مرد) قهوه می نوشد.‬
oo (mard) ghah-ve minushad.
Where do they like to go?
‫کجا دوست دارند بروند؟‬
kojâ doost dârand beravand?
To a concert.
‫به کنسرت.‬
be konsert.
They like to listen to music.
‫آنها به شنیدن موسیقی علاقه مندند. ‬
ânhâ be shanidane musighi alâghe-mandand.
Where do they not like to go?
‫به کجا دوست ندارند بروند؟‬
be kojâ doost nadârand beravand?
To the disco.
‫به دیسکو.‬
be disco.
They do not like to dance.
‫آنها به رقصیدن علاقه ندارند.‬
ânhâ be raghsidan alâghe nadârand.

Creole Languages

Did you know that German is spoken in the South Pacific? It's really true! In parts of Papua New Guinea and Australia, people speak Unserdeutsch. It is a Creole language. Creole languages emerge in language contact situations. That is, when multiple different languages encounter one another. By now, many Creole languages are almost extinct. But worldwide 15 million people still speak a Creole language. Creole languages are always native languages. It's different with Pidgin languages. Pidgin languages are very simplified forms of speech. They are only good for very basic communication. Most Creole languages originated in the colonial era. Therefore, Creole languages are often based on European languages. One characteristic of Creole languages is a limited vocabulary. Creole languages have their own phonology too. The grammar of Creole languages is heavily simplified. Complicated rules are simply ignored by the speakers. Each Creole language is an important component of national identity. As a result, there is a lot of literature written in Creole languages. Creole languages are especially interesting for linguists. This is because they demonstrate how languages develop and later die out. So the development of language can be studied in Creole languages. They also prove that languages can change and adapt. The discipline used to research Creole languages is Creolistics, or Creology. One of the best-known sentences in the Creole language comes from Jamaica. Bob Marley made it world famous – do you know it? It's No woman, no cry! (= No, woman, don't cry!)

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the ****o-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for ______. Another hallmark of ______ is its many vowels.

______ grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken ______ are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes ______ not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about ______ is that it is so completely logical!


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners