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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


87 [ఎనభై ఏడు]

భూత కాలంలో సహాయక క్రియలు 1


We had to water the flowers.
మేము చెట్లకి నీళ్ళు పోయాల్సివచ్చింది
Mēmu ceṭlaki nīḷḷu pōyālsivaccindi
We had to clean the apartment.
మేము అపార్ట్మెంట్ ని శుభ్రపరచాల్సి వచ్చింది
Mēmu apārṭmeṇṭ ni śubhraparacālsi vaccindi
We had to wash the dishes.
మేము గిన్నెలని తోమాల్సివచ్చింది
Mēmu ginnelani tōmālsivaccindi
Did you have to pay the bill?
మీకు బిల్లు చెల్లించ వలసి వచ్చిందా?
Mīku billu cellin̄ca valasi vaccindā?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
మీకు ప్రవేశ రుసుము చెల్లించ వలసి వచ్చిందా?
Mīku pravēśa rusumu cellin̄ca valasi vaccindā?
Did you have to pay a fine?
మీకు జరిమానా చెల్లించ వలసి వచ్చిందా?
Mīku jarimānā cellin̄ca valasi vaccindā?
Who had to say goodbye?
ఎవరికి వెళ్ళొస్తానని చెప్పాల్సి ఉంది?
Evariki veḷḷostānani ceppālsi undi?
Who had to go home early?
ఎవరికి ఇంటికి తొందరగా వెళ్ళాల్సి ఉంది?
Evariki iṇṭiki tondaragā veḷḷālsi undi?
Who had to take the train?
ఎవరికి ట్రేన్ అందుకోవాల్సి ఉంది?
Evariki ṭrēn andukōvālsi undi?
We did not want to stay long.
మాకు ఇంకా ఎక్కువ సేపు ఉండాలని అనిపించలేదు
Māku iṅkā ekkuva sēpu uṇḍālani anipin̄calēdu
We did not want to drink anything.
మాకు ఇంకా ఏమీ తాగాలని అనిపించడంలేదు
Māku iṅkā ēmī tāgālani anipin̄caḍanlēdu
We did not want to disturb you.
మాకు మిమ్మల్ని కలతపెట్టాలని అనిపించలేదు
Māku mim'malni kalatapeṭṭālani anipin̄calēdu
I just wanted to make a call.
నేను ఇప్పుడే ఒక కాల్ చేసుకుందామని అనుకున్నాను
Nēnu ippuḍē oka kāl cēsukundāmani anukunnānu
I just wanted to call a taxi.
నేను ఇప్పుడే ఒక టాక్సీని పిలుద్దామని అనుకున్నాను
Nēnu ippuḍē oka ṭāksīni piluddāmani anukunnānu
Actually I wanted to drive home.
నిజం చెప్పాలంటే నాకు ఇంటికి వెళ్ళాలని ఉంది
Nijaṁ ceppālaṇṭē nāku iṇṭiki veḷḷālani undi
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
మీరు మీ భార్యకి కాల్ చేయదలిచారని అనుకుంటా
Mīru mī bhāryaki kāl cēyadalicārani anukuṇṭā
I thought you wanted to call information.
మీరు సమాచార కేంద్రానికి కాల్ చేయదలిచారని అనుకుంటా
Mīru samācāra kēndrāniki kāl cēyadalicārani anukuṇṭā
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
మీరు ఒక పిజ్జా ని తెప్పించదలిచారు అని అనుకుంటా
Mīru oka pijjā ni teppin̄cadalicāru ani anukuṇṭā

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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