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67 [sixty-seven]

Possessive pronouns 2

 


67 [ਸਤਾਹਠ]

ਸੰਬੰਧਵਾਚਕ ਪੜਨਾਂਵ 2

 

 
the glasses
ਐਨਕ
ainaka
He has forgotten his glasses.
ਉਹ ਆਪਣੀ ਐਨਕ ਭੁੱਲ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ।
uha āpaṇī ainaka bhula gi'ā hai.
Where has he left his glasses?
ਫਿਰ ਉਸਦੀ ਐਨਕ ਕਿੱਥੇ ਹੈ?
Phira usadī ainaka kithē hai?
 
 
 
 
the clock
ਘੜੀ
Ghaṛī
His clock isn’t working.
ਉਸਦੀ ਘੜੀ ਖਰਾਬ ਹੋ ਗਈ ਹੈ।
usadī ghaṛī kharāba hō ga'ī hai.
The clock hangs on the wall.
ਘੜੀ ਦੀਵਾਰ ਤੇ ਟੰਗੀ ਹੈ।
Ghaṛī dīvāra tē ṭagī hai.
 
 
 
 
the passport
ਪਾਸਪੋਰਟ
Pāsapōraṭa
He has lost his passport.
ਉਹਨੇ ਆਪਣਾ ਪਾਸਪੋਰਟ ਗੁਆ ਲਿਆ ਹੈ।
uhanē āpaṇā pāsapōraṭa gu'ā li'ā hai.
Where is his passport then?
ਤਾਂ ਉਸਦਾ ਪਾਸਪੋਰਟ ਕਿੱਥੇ ਹੈ?
Tāṁ usadā pāsapōraṭa kithē hai?
 
 
 
 
they – their
ਉਹ – ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦਾ / ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ / ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ
Uha – uhanāṁ dā/ uhanāṁ dī/ uhanāṁ dē
The children cannot find their parents.
ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਮਾਂ – ਬਾਪ ਨਹੀਂ ਮਿਲ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ।
baci'āṁ nū uhanāṁ dē māṁ – bāpa nahīṁ mila rahē hana.
Here come their parents!
ਲਓ ਓਥੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਮਾਤਾ – ਪਿਤਾ ਆ ਰਹੇ ਹਨ।
La'ō ōthē uhanāṁ dē mātā – pitā ā rahē hana.
 
 
 
 
you – your
ਤੁਸੀਂ – ਤੁਹਾਡਾ / ਤੁਹਾਡੇ / ਤੁਹਾਡੀ
Tusīṁ – tuhāḍā/ tuhāḍē/ tuhāḍī
How was your trip, Mr. Miller?
ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਯਾਤਰਾ ਕਿਹੋ ਜਿਹੀ ਸੀ, ਸ਼੍ਰੀ ਮਿੱਲਰ?
tuhāḍī yātarā kihō jihī sī, śrī milara?
Where is your wife, Mr. Miller?
ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਪਤਨੀ ਕਿੱਥੇ ਹੈ, ਸ਼੍ਰੀ ਮਿੱਲਰ?
Tuhāḍī patanī kithē hai, śrī milara?
 
 
 
 
you – your
ਤੁਸੀਂ – ਤੁਹਾਡਾ / ਤੁਹਾਡੇ / ਤੁਹਾਡੀ
Tusīṁ – tuhāḍā/ tuhāḍē/ tuhāḍī
How was your trip, Mrs. Smith?
ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਯਾਤਰਾ ਕਿਹੋ ਜਿਹੀ ਸੀ, ਸ਼੍ਰੀਮਤੀ ਸਮਿੱਥ?
tuhāḍī yātarā kihō jihī sī, śrīmatī samitha?
Where is your husband, Mrs. Smith?
ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਪਤੀ ਕਿੱਥੇ ਹਨ, ਸ਼੍ਰੀਮਤੀ ਸਮਿੱਥ?
Tuhāḍē patī kithē hana, śrīmatī samitha?
 
 
 
 
 

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Genetic mutation makes speaking possible

Man is the only living creature on Earth that can speak. This distinguishes him from animals and plants. Of course animals and plants also communicate with each other. However, they do not speak a complex syllable language. But why can man speak? Certain physical features are needed in order to be able to speak. These physical features are only found in humans. However, that does not necessarily mean that man developed them. In evolutionary history, nothing happens without a reason. Somewhere along the line, man began to speak. We do not yet know when exactly that was. But something must have happened that gave man speech. Researchers believe that a genetic mutation was responsible. Anthropologists have compared the genetic material of various living beings. It is well known that a particular gene influences speech. People in which it is damaged have problems with speech. They can't express themselves well and have a hard time understanding words. This gene was examined in people, apes, and mice. It is very similar in humans and chimpanzees. Only two small differences can be identified. But these differences make their presence known in the brain. Together with other genes, they influence certain brain activities. Thus humans can speak, whereas apes cannot. However, the riddle of the human language is not yet solved. For the gene mutation alone is not enough to enable speech. Researchers implanted the human gene variant in mice. It didn't give them the ability to speak… But their squeaks made quite a racket!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Finno-Ugrian languages. It is thereby related to Finnish and Hungarian. However, parallels to Hungarian are only slightly noticeable. Many think that ______ is similar to Latvian or Lithuanian. That is completely false, however. Both of those languages belong to a completely different language family. ______ does not have any grammatical genders. There is no differentiation between feminine and masculine.

Instead there are 14 different cases. The orthography is not very difficult. It is determined by the pronunciation. This should definitely be practiced with a native speaker. If you want to learn ______, you need discipline and a little patience. ______s are happy to overlook little mistakes made by foreigners. They are excited to meet anyone who is interested in their language!

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book2 English UK - Punjabi for beginners