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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


७२ [बहात्तर]

एखादी गोष्ट अनिवार्यपणे करण्यास भाग पडणे


एखादी गोष्ट करावीच लागणे
ēkhādī gōṣṭa karāvīca lāgaṇē
I must post the letter.
मला हे पत्र पाठविलेच पाहिजे.
malā hē patra pāṭhavilēca pāhijē.
I must pay the hotel.
मला हॉटेलचे बील दिलेच पाहिजे.
Malā hŏṭēlacē bīla dilēca pāhijē.
You must get up early.
तू लवकर उठले पाहिजे.
Tū lavakara uṭhalē pāhijē.
You must work a lot.
तू खूप काम केले पाहिजे.
Tū khūpa kāma kēlē pāhijē.
You must be punctual.
तू वक्तशीर असले पाहिजेस.
Tū vaktaśīra asalē pāhijēsa.
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
त्याने गॅस भरला पाहिजे.
Tyānē gĕsa bharalā pāhijē.
He must repair the car.
त्याने कार दुरुस्त केली पाहिजे.
Tyānē kāra durusta kēlī pāhijē.
He must wash the car.
त्याने कार धुतली पाहिजे.
Tyānē kāra dhutalī pāhijē.
She must shop.
तिने खरेदी केली पाहिजे.
Tinē kharēdī kēlī pāhijē.
She must clean the apartment.
तिने घर साफ केले पाहिजे.
Tinē ghara sāpha kēlē pāhijē.
She must wash the clothes.
तिने कपडे धुतले पाहिजेत.
Tinē kapaḍē dhutalē pāhijēta.
We must go to school at once.
आम्ही लगेच शाळेत गेले पाहिजे.
Āmhī lagēca śāḷēta gēlē pāhijē.
We must go to work at once.
आम्ही लगेच कामाला गेले पाहिजे.
Āmhī lagēca kāmālā gēlē pāhijē.
We must go to the doctor at once.
आम्ही लगेच डॉक्टरकडे गेले पाहिजे.
Āmhī lagēca ḍŏkṭarakaḍē gēlē pāhijē.
You must wait for the bus.
तू बसची वाट बघितली पाहिजे.
Tū basacī vāṭa baghitalī pāhijē.
You must wait for the train.
तू ट्रेनची वाट बघितली पाहिजे.
Tū ṭrēnacī vāṭa baghitalī pāhijē.
You must wait for the taxi.
तू टॅक्सीची वाट बघितली पाहिजे.
Tū ṭĕksīcī vāṭa baghitalī pāhijē.

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!


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book2 English US - Marathi for beginners