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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


८७ [सत्त्याऐंशी]

क्रियापदांच्या रूपप्रकारांचा भूतकाळ १


We had to water the flowers.
आम्हांला झाडांना पाणी घालावे लागले.
āmhānlā jhāḍānnā pāṇī ghālāvē lāgalē.
We had to clean the apartment.
आम्हांला घर साफ करावे लागले.
Āmhānlā ghara sāpha karāvē lāgalē.
We had to wash the dishes.
आम्हांला बशा धुवाव्या लागल्या.
Āmhānlā baśā dhuvāvyā lāgalyā.
Did you have to pay the bill?
तुला बील भरावे लागले का?
Tulā bīla bharāvē lāgalē kā?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
तुला प्रवेश शुल्क द्यावे लागले का?
Tulā pravēśa śulka dyāvē lāgalē kā?
Did you have to pay a fine?
तुला दंड भरावा लागला का?
Tulā daṇḍa bharāvā lāgalā kā?
Who had to say goodbye?
कोणाला निरोप घ्यावा लागला?
Kōṇālā nirōpa ghyāvā lāgalā?
Who had to go home early?
कोणाला लवकर घरी जावे लागले?
Kōṇālā lavakara gharī jāvē lāgalē?
Who had to take the train?
कोणाला रेल्वेने जावे लागले?
Kōṇālā rēlvēnē jāvē lāgalē?
We did not want to stay long.
आम्हांला जास्त वेळ राहायचे नव्हते.
Āmhānlā jāsta vēḷa rāhāyacē navhatē.
We did not want to drink anything.
आम्हांला काही प्यायचे नव्हते.
Āmhānlā kāhī pyāyacē navhatē.
We did not want to disturb you.
आम्हांला तुला त्रास द्यायचा नव्हता.
Āmhānlā tulā trāsa dyāyacā navhatā.
I just wanted to make a call.
मला केवळ फोन करायचा होता.
Malā kēvaḷa phōna karāyacā hōtā.
I just wanted to call a taxi.
मला केवळ टॅक्सी बोलवायची होती.
Malā kēvaḷa ṭĕksī bōlavāyacī hōtī.
Actually I wanted to drive home.
खरे तर मला घरी जायचे होते.
Kharē tara malā gharī jāyacē hōtē.
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
मला वाटले की तुला तुझ्या पत्नीला फोन करायचा होता.
Malā vāṭalē kī tulā tujhyā patnīlā phōna karāyacā hōtā.
I thought you wanted to call information.
मला वाटले की तुला माहिती केंद्राला फोन करायचा होता.
Malā vāṭalē kī tulā māhitī kēndrālā phōna karāyacā hōtā.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
मला वाटले की तुला पिझ्झा मागवायचा होता.
Malā vāṭalē kī tulā pijhjhā māgavāyacā hōtā.

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Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!

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