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92 [ninety-two]

Subordinate clauses: that 2


92 [ਬਾਨਵੇਂ]

ਅਧੀਨ – ਉਪਵਾਕ 2


I’m angry that you snore.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਗੁੱਸਾ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਘੁਰਾੜੇ ਮਾਰਦੇ ਹੋ।
mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ ghurāṛē māradē hō.
I’m angry that you drink so much beer.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਗੁੱਸਾ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਐਨੀ ਬੀਅਰ ਪੀਂਦੇ ਹੋ।
Mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ ainī bī'ara pīndē hō.
I’m angry that you come so late.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਗੁੱਸਾ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਦੇਰ ਨਾਲ ਆਉਂਦੇ ਹੋ।
Mainū gusā ā'undā hai ki tusīṁ bahuta dēra nāla ā'undē hō.
I think he needs a doctor.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਸਨੂੰ ਡਾਕਟਰ ਦੀ ਲੋੜ ਹੈ।
Mainū lagadā hai ki usanū ḍākaṭara dī lōṛa hai.
I think he is ill.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਬੀਮਾਰ ਹੈ।
Mainū lagadā hai ki uha bīmāra hai.
I think he is sleeping now.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਲੱਗਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਹੁਣ ਸੌਂ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ।
Mainū lagadā hai ki uha huṇa sauṁ rihā hai.
We hope that he marries our daughter.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਆਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਸਾਡੀ ਬੇਟੀ ਨਾਲ ਵਿਆਹ ਕਰੇਗਾ।
Sānū āsa hai ki uha sāḍī bēṭī nāla vi'āha karēgā.
We hope that he has a lot of money.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਆਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਸਦੇ ਕੋਲ ਬਹੁਤ ਪੈਸਾ ਹੈ।
Sānū āsa hai ki usadē kōla bahuta paisā hai.
We hope that he is a millionaire.
ਸਾਨੂੰ ਆਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਲੱਖਪਤੀ ਹੈ।
Sānū āsa hai ki uha lakhapatī hai.
I heard that your wife had an accident.
ਮੈਂ ਸੁਣਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਹਾਡੀ ਪਤਨੀ ਨਾਲ ਹਾਦਸਾ ਵਾਪਰ ਗਿਆ।
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki tuhāḍī patanī nāla hādasā vāpara gi'ā.
I heard that she is in the hospital.
ਮੈਂ ਸੁਣਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਹਸਪਤਾਲ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੈ।
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki uha hasapatāla vica hai.
I heard that your car is completely wrecked.
ਮੈਂ ਸੁਣਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੇਰੀ ਗੱਡੀ ਪੂਰੀ ਟੁੱਟ ਗਈ ਹੈ।
Maiṁ suṇi'ā hai ki tērī gaḍī pūrī ṭuṭa ga'ī hai.
I’m happy that you came.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਖੁਸ਼ੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਆਏ।
Mainū khuśī hai ki tusīṁ ā'ē.
I’m happy that you are interested.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਖੁਸ਼ੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਦਿਲਚਸਪੀ ਹੈ।
Mainū khuśī hai ki tuhānū dilacasapī hai.
I’m happy that you want to buy the house.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਖੁਸ਼ੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਤੁਸੀਂ ਘਰ ਖਰੀਦਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਹੋ।
Mainū khuśī hai ki tusīṁ ghara kharīdaṇā cāhudē hō.
I’m afraid the last bus has already gone.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਅਫਸੋਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਆਖਰੀ ਬੱਸ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਹੀ ਜਾ ਚੁੱਕੀ ਹੈ।
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki ākharī basa pahilāṁ hī jā cukī hai.
I’m afraid we will have to take a taxi.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਅਫਸੋਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਟੈਕਸੀ ਲੈਣੀ ਪਵੇਗੀ।
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki sānū ṭaikasī laiṇī pavēgī.
I’m afraid I have no more money.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਅਫਸੋਸ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਮੇਰੇ ਕੋਲ ਪੈਸੇ ਨਹੀਂ ਹਨ।
Mainū aphasōsa hai ki mērē kōla paisē nahīṁ hana.

From gestures to speech

When we speak or listen, our brain has a lot to do. It has to process the linguistic signals. Gestures and symbols are linguistic signals too. They existed even before human speech. Some symbols are understood in all cultures. Others have to be learned. They can't be understood just by looking at them. Gestures and symbols are processed like speech. And they are processed in the same area of the brain! A new study has proven this. Researchers tested several test subjects. These test subjects had to view various video clips. While they were watching the clips, their brain activity was measured. In one group, the clips expressed various things. These occurred through movements, symbols and speech. The other test group watched different video clips. These videos were nonsense clips. Speech, gestures and symbols didn't exist. They had no meaning. In the measurements, the researchers saw what was processed where. They could compare the brain activity of the test subjects. Everything that had meaning was analyzed in the same area. The results of this experiment are very interesting. They show how our brain has learned language over time. At first, man communicated with gestures. Later he developed a language. The brain had to learn, therefore, to process speech like gestures. And evidently it simply updated the old version …

Guess the language!

*****ian is counted among the Eastern *****ce languages. It is the native language of about 30 million people. These people live primarily in *****ia and Moldova. *****ian is also the official language of the Republic of Moldova. There are also sizeable *****ian-speaking communities in Serbia and Ukraine, however. *****ian originated from Latin. The *****s formerly maintained two provinces in the region surrounding the Danube. *****ian is most closely related to Italian.

Therefore, *****ians can understand Italians very well for the most part. The opposite is not always the case. This is due to the fact that *****ian contains many Slavic words. The phonology was influenced by the neighboring Slavic linguistic area. As a result, the *****ian alphabet has a few special symbols. *****ian is written like it is spoken. And it still exhibits many similarities with the structure of ancient Latin … That is precisely what makes the discovery of this language so exciting!

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