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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must


72 [எழுபத்து இரண்டு]

கட்டாயமாக செய்ய வேண்டியது


I must post the letter.
நான் இந்த கடிதத்தை கட்டாயமாக தபாலில் சேர்க்க வேண்டும்.
nāṉ inta kaṭitattai kaṭṭāyamāka tapālil cērkka vēṇṭum.
I must pay the hotel.
நான் கட்டாயமாக ஹோட்டலுக்கு கட்டணம் செலுத்த வேண்டும்.
Nāṉ kaṭṭāyamāka hōṭṭalukku kaṭṭaṇam celutta vēṇṭum.
You must get up early.
நீ கட்டாயமாக சீக்கிரம் எழுந்திருக்க வேண்டும்.
Nī kaṭṭāyamāka cīkkiram eḻuntirukka vēṇṭum.
You must work a lot.
நீ கட்டாயமாக நிறைய வேலை செய்ய வேண்டும்.
Nī kaṭṭāyamāka niṟaiya vēlai ceyya vēṇṭum.
You must be punctual.
நீ கட்டாயமாக எப்பொழுதும் நேரம் தவறாமல் இருக்க வேண்டும்.
Nī kaṭṭāyamāka eppoḻutum nēram tavaṟāmal irukka vēṇṭum.
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
அவனுக்கு கட்டாயம் பெட்ரோல் போட வேண்டும்.
Avaṉukku kaṭṭāyam peṭrōl pōṭa vēṇṭum.
He must repair the car.
அவனுக்கு கட்டாயம் மோட்டார் வண்டியை பழுது பார்க்க வேண்டும்.
Avaṉukku kaṭṭāyam mōṭṭār vaṇṭiyai paḻutu pārkka vēṇṭum.
He must wash the car.
அவனுக்கு கட்டாயம் வண்டியை சுத்தம் செய்ய வேண்டும்.
Avaṉukku kaṭṭāyam vaṇṭiyai cuttam ceyya vēṇṭum.
She must shop.
அவளுக்கு கட்டாயம் கடை செல்ல வேண்டும்.
Avaḷukku kaṭṭāyam kaṭai cella vēṇṭum.
She must clean the apartment.
அவளுக்கு கட்டாயம் வீட்டைச் சுத்தம் செய்ய வேண்டும்.
Avaḷukku kaṭṭāyam vīṭṭaic cuttam ceyya vēṇṭum.
She must wash the clothes.
அவளுக்கு கட்டாயம் துணிகள் துவைக்க வேண்டும்.
Avaḷukku kaṭṭāyam tuṇikaḷ tuvaikka vēṇṭum.
We must go to school at once.
நாங்கள் உடனே பள்ளிக்கூடம் செல்ல வேண்டும்.
Nāṅkaḷ uṭaṉē paḷḷikkūṭam cella vēṇṭum.
We must go to work at once.
நாங்கள் உடனே வேலைக்குச் செல்ல வேண்டும்.
Nāṅkaḷ uṭaṉē vēlaikkuc cella vēṇṭum.
We must go to the doctor at once.
நாங்கள் உடனே மருத்துவரிடம் செல்ல வேண்டும்.
Nāṅkaḷ uṭaṉē maruttuvariṭam cella vēṇṭum.
You must wait for the bus.
நீங்கள் எல்லோரும் பேருந்துக்கு காத்திருக்க வேண்டும்.
Nīṅkaḷ ellōrum pēruntukku kāttirukka vēṇṭum.
You must wait for the train.
நீங்கள் எல்லோரும் ரயிலுக்கு காத்திருக்க வேண்டும்.
Nīṅkaḷ ellōrum rayilukku kāttirukka vēṇṭum.
You must wait for the taxi.
நீங்கள் எல்லோரும் வாடகை வண்டிக்கு காத்திருக்க வேண்டும்.
Nīṅkaḷ ellōrum vāṭakai vaṇṭikku kāttirukka vēṇṭum.

Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. Scientists have been interested in these reasons for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!


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book2 English UK - Tamil for beginners