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96 [ninety-six]

Conjunctions 3

 


96 [ਛਿਆਨਵੇਂ]

ਸਮੁੱਚਬੋਧਕ 3

 

 
I get up as soon as the alarm rings.
ਜਿਵੇਂ ਹੀ ਘੜੀ ਦਾ ਅਲਾਰਮ ਵੱਜਦਾ ਹੈ, ਮੈਂ ਉਠਦਾ / ਉਠਦੀ ਹਾਂ।
jivēṁ hī ghaṛī dā alārama vajadā hai, maiṁ uṭhadā/ uṭhadī hāṁ.
I become tired as soon as I have to study.
ਜਿਵੇਂ ਹੀ ਮੈਂ ਪੜ੍ਹਨ ਲੱਗਦਾ / ਲੱਗਦੀ ਹਾਂ, ਮੈਨੂੰ ਥਕਾਨ ਹੋ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ।
Jivēṁ hī maiṁ paṛhana lagadā/ lagadī hāṁ, mainū thakāna hō jāndī hai.
I will stop working as soon as I am 60.
60 ਸਾਲ ਦੇ ਹੋ ਜਾਣ ਤੇ ਮੈਂ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨਾ ਬੰਦ ਕਰ ਦਿਆਂਗਾ / ਦਿਆਂਗੀ।
60 Sāla dē hō jāṇa tē maiṁ kama karanā bada kara di'āṅgā/ di'āṅgī.
 
 
 
 
When will you call?
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਦੋਂ ਫੋਨ ਕਰੋਗੇ?
Tusīṁ kadōṁ phōna karōgē?
As soon as I have a moment.
ਜਿਵੇਂ ਹੀ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਕੁਝ ਸਮਾਂ, ਮਿਲੇਗਾ।
Jivēṁ hī mainū kujha samāṁ, milēgā.
He’ll call, as soon as he has a little time.
ਜਿਵੇਂ ਹੀ ਉਸਨੂੰ ਕੁਝ ਸਮਾਂ ਮਿਲੇਗਾ,ਉਹ ਫੋਨ ਕਰੇਗਾ।
Jivēṁ hī usanū kujha samāṁ milēgā,uha phōna karēgā.
 
 
 
 
How long will you work?
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਦੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਕੰਮ ਕਰੋਗੇ?
Tusīṁ kadōṁ taka kama karōgē?
I’ll work as long as I can.
ਜਦੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਮੈਂ ਕੰਮ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ / ਸਕਦੀ ਹਾਂ, ਮੈਂ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਾਂਗਾ / ਕਰਾਂਗੀ।
Jadōṁ taka maiṁ kama kara sakadā/ sakadī hāṁ, maiṁ kama karāṅgā/ karāṅgī.
I’ll work as long as I am healthy.
ਜਦੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਮੇਰੀ ਸਿਹਤ ਚੰਗੀ ਹੈ, ਮੈਂ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਾਂਗਾ / ਕਰਾਂਗੀ।
Jadōṁ taka mērī sihata cagī hai, maiṁ kama karāṅgā/ karāṅgī.
 
 
 
 
He lies in bed instead of working.
ਉਹ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਬਜਾਏ ਬਿਸਤਰੇ ਤੇ ਪਿਆ ਹੈ।
Uha kama karana dī bajā'ē bisatarē tē pi'ā hai.
She reads the newspaper instead of cooking.
ਉਹ ਖਾਣਾ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਦੀ ਬਜਾਏ ਅਖਬਾਰ ਪੜ੍ਹ ਰਹੀ ਹੈ।
Uha khāṇā baṇā'uṇa dī bajā'ē akhabāra paṛha rahī hai.
He is at the bar instead of going home.
ਉਹ ਘਰ ਵਾਪਸ ਜਾਣ ਦੀ ਬਜਾਏ ਅਹਾਤੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਬੈਠਾ ਹੈ।
Uha ghara vāpasa jāṇa dī bajā'ē ahātē vica baiṭhā hai.
 
 
 
 
As far as I know, he lives here.
ਜਿੱਥੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਪਤਾ ਹੈ, ਉਹ ਇੱਥੇ ਰਹਿੰਦਾ ਹੈ।
Jithōṁ taka mainū patā hai, uha ithē rahidā hai.
As far as I know, his wife is ill.
ਜਿੱਥੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਪਤਾ ਹੈ, ਉਸਦੀ ਪਤਨੀ ਬੀਮਾਰ ਹੈ।
Jithōṁ taka mainū patā hai, usadī patanī bīmāra hai.
As far as I know, he is unemployed.
ਜਿੱਥੋਂ ਤੱਕ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਪਤਾ ਹੈ, ਉਹ ਬੇਰੋਜ਼ਗਾਰ ਹੈ।
Jithōṁ taka mainū patā hai, uha bērōzagāra hai.
 
 
 
 
I overslept; otherwise I’d have been on time.
ਮੈਂ ਸੌਂਦਾ / ਸੌਂਦੀ ਰਹਿ ਗਿਆ / ਗਈ, ਨਹੀਂ ਤਾਂ ਮੈਂ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੇ ਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ / ਜਾਂਦੀ।
Maiṁ saundā/ saundī rahi gi'ā/ ga'ī, nahīṁ tāṁ maiṁ samēṁ tē ā jāndā/ jāndī.
I missed the bus; otherwise I’d have been on time.
ਮੇਰੀ ਬੱਸ ਛੁੱਟ ਗਈ ਨਹੀਂ ਤਾਂ ਮੈਂ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੇ ਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ / ਜਾਂਦੀ।
Mērī basa chuṭa ga'ī nahīṁ tāṁ maiṁ samēṁ tē ā jāndā/ jāndī.
I didn’t find the way / I got lost; otherwise I’d have been on time.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਰਸਤਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਮਿਲਿਆ, ਨਹੀਂ ਤਾਂ ਮੈਂ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੇ ਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ / ਜਾਂਦੀ।
Mainū rasatā nahīṁ mili'ā, nahīṁ tāṁ maiṁ samēṁ tē ā jāndā/ jāndī.
 
 
 
 
 

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Language and math

Thinking and speech go together. They influence one another. Linguistic structures influence the structures of our thinking. In some languages, for example, there are no words for numbers. The speakers do not understand the concept of numbers. So math and language also go together in some way. Grammatical and mathematical structures are often similar. Some researchers believe that they are also processed similarly. They believe that the speech centre is also responsible for math. It can help the brain to perform calculations. Recent studies are coming to another conclusion, however. They show that our brain processes math without speech. Researchers studied three men. The brains of these test subjects were injured. As a result, the speech centre was also damaged. The men had big problems with speaking. They could no longer formulate simple sentences. They couldn't understand words either. After the speech test the men had to solve math problems. A few of these mathematical puzzles were very complex. Even so, the test subjects could solve them! The results of this study are very interesting. They show that math is not encoded with words. It's possible that language and math have the same basis. Both are processed from the same centre. But math doesn't have to be translated into speech first. Perhaps language and math develop together too... Then when the brain has finished developing, they exist separately!

Guess the language!

______ian is counted among the West Slavic languages. It is the native language of more than 5 million people. It is very closely related to the neighboring Czech. This is due to their mutual past in former Czecho______ia. The vocabulary of the two languages is largely identical. The differences are primarily in the phonology. ______ian emerged in the 10th century in the form of multiple dialects. It was then influenced by neighboring languages over a long period of time.

Today's standard language was not established until the 19th century. Some elements could thus be simplified compared to those in Czech. The many different dialects have been upheld until today though. ______ian is written with the Latin alphabet. And it is the language that is easiest to understand for other Slavic speakers. It could be said that ______ian is a type of intermediate language in the Slavic region. This is a good reason to grapple with this beautiful language.

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