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95 [ninety-five]

Conjunctions 2



ਗਿੰਨੀ ਪਿੱਗ


Since when is she no longer working?
uha kadōṁ tōṁ kama nahīṁ kara rahī?
Since her marriage?
Usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ?
Yes, she is no longer working since she got married.
Hāṁ, usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ uha kama nahīṁ kara rahī.
Since she got married, she’s no longer working.
Usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ uha kama nahīṁ kara rahī.
Since they have met each other, they are happy.
Jadōṁ tōṁ uha ika dūjē nū jāṇadē nē, udōṁ tōṁ uha khuśa nē.
Since they have had children, they rarely go out.
Jadōṁ tōṁ uhanāṁ dē bacē hō'ē hana udōṁ tōṁ uha bahuta ghaṭa bāhara jāndē hana.
When does she call?
ਬਿੱਲੀ ਦਾ ਬੱਚਾ
Uha kadōṁ phōna karēgī?
When driving?
Gaḍī calā'uṇa vakata?
Yes, when she is driving.
Hāṁ jadōṁ uha gaḍī calā rahī hō'ūgī.
She calls while she drives.
Gaḍī calā'uṇa vēlē uha phōna karadī hai.
She watches TV while she irons.
Kapaṛi'āṁ nū praisa karadē samēṁ uha ṭīvī dēkhadī hai.
She listens to music while she does her work.
Āpaṇā kama karana vēlē uha sagīta suṇadī hai.
I can’t see anything when I don’t have glasses.
Jadōṁ mērē kōla ainaka nahīṁ hudī udōṁ maiṁ kujha dēkha nahīṁ sakadā/ sakadā.
I can’t understand anything when the music is so loud.
Jadōṁ sagīta ucā vajadā hai tāṁ maiṁ kujha samajha nahīṁ pā'undā/ pā'undī.
I can’t smell anything when I have a cold.
Jadōṁ mainū zukāma hudā hai tāṁ maiṁ kujha sugha nahīṁ pā'undā.
We’ll take a taxi if it rains.
ਦਰਿਆਈ ਘੋੜਾ
Jēkara bāriśa hō'ī tāṁ asīṁ ṭaikasī lavāṅgē.
We’ll travel around the world if we win the lottery.
Jē sāḍī lāṭarī laga ga'ī tāṁ asīṁ sārī dunī'āṁ ghumāṅgē.
We’ll start eating if he doesn’t come soon.
Jēkara uha jaladī nahīṁ ā'i'ātāṁ asīṁ khāṇā śurū karāṅgē.

The languages of the European Union

Today the European Union consists of more than 25 countries. In the future, even more countries will belong to the EU. A new country usually means a new language as well. Currently, more than 20 different languages are spoken in the EU. All languages in the European Union are equal. This variety of languages is fascinating. But it can lead to problems as well. Skeptics believe that the many languages are an obstacle for the EU. They hinder efficient collaboration. Many think, therefore, that there should be a common language. All countries should be able to communicate with this language. But it's not that easy. No language can be named the one official language. The other countries would feel disadvantaged. And there isn't a truly neutral language in Europe… An artificial language such as Esperanto wouldn't work either. Because the culture of a country is always reflected in the language. Therefore, no country wants to relinquish its language. The countries see a part of their identity in their language. Language policy is an important item on the EU's agenda. There is even a commissioner for multilingualism. The EU has the most translators and interpreters worldwide. Around 3,500 people work to make an agreement possible. Nevertheless, not all documents can always be translated. That would take too much time and cost too much money. Most documents are only translated into a few languages. The many languages are one of the biggest challenges of the EU. Europe should unite, without losing its many identities!

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of about 12 million people. The majority of those people live in ****** and other countries in southeastern Europe. ______ is counted among the South Slavic languages. It is closely related to Croatian and Bosnian. The grammar and vocabulary are very similar. Such being the case, it is easy for ______s, Croatians, and Bosnians to understand each other. The ______ alphabet contains 30 letters. Each one has a distinct pronunciation.

Parallels to ancient tonal languages can be found in the intonation. In Chinese, for example, the pitch of the syllables changes with the meaning. That is similar to ______. However, in this case only the pitch of the accented syllable plays a role. The strongly inflectional language structure is another hallmark of ______. That means that nouns, verbs, adjectives and pronouns are always inflected. If you are interested in grammatical structures, you should definitely learn ______!


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book2 English UK - Punjabi for beginners