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95 [ninety-five]

Conjunctions 2

 


95 [ਪਚਾਨਵੇਂ]

ਸਮੁਚਬੋਧਕ 2

 

 
Since when is she no longer working?
ਉਹ ਕਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਕੰਮ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਰਹੀ?
uha kadōṁ tōṁ kama nahīṁ kara rahī?
Since her marriage?
ਉਸਦਾ ਵਿਆਹ ਹੋ ਜਾਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਤੋਂ?
Usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ?
Yes, she is no longer working since she got married.
ਹਾਂ, ਉਸਦਾ ਵਿਆਹ ਹੋ ਜਾਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਤੋਂ ਉਹ ਕੰਮ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਰਹੀ।
Hāṁ, usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ uha kama nahīṁ kara rahī.
 
 
 
 
Since she got married, she’s no longer working.
ਉਸਦਾ ਵਿਆਹ ਹੋ ਜਾਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਤੋਂ ਉਹ ਕੰਮ ਨਹੀਂ ਕਰ ਰਹੀ।
Usadā vi'āha hō jāṇa tōṁ bā'ada tōṁ uha kama nahīṁ kara rahī.
Since they have met each other, they are happy.
ਜਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਉਹ ਇੱਕ ਦੂਜੇ ਨੂੰ ਜਾਣਦੇ ਨੇ, ਉਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਉਹ ਖੁਸ਼ ਨੇ।
Jadōṁ tōṁ uha ika dūjē nū jāṇadē nē, udōṁ tōṁ uha khuśa nē.
Since they have had children, they rarely go out.
ਜਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਹੋਏ ਹਨ ਉਦੋਂ ਤੋਂ ਉਹ ਬਹੁਤ ਘੱਟ ਬਾਹਰ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ
Jadōṁ tōṁ uhanāṁ dē bacē hō'ē hana udōṁ tōṁ uha bahuta ghaṭa bāhara jāndē hana.
 
 
 
 
When does she call?
ਉਹ ਕਦੋਂ ਫੋਨ ਕਰੇਗੀ?
Uha kadōṁ phōna karēgī?
When driving?
ਗੱਡੀ ਚਲਾਉਣ ਵਕਤ?
Gaḍī calā'uṇa vakata?
Yes, when she is driving.
ਹਾਂ ਜਦੋਂ ਉਹ ਗੱਡੀ ਚਲਾ ਰਹੀ ਹੋਊਗੀ।
Hāṁ jadōṁ uha gaḍī calā rahī hō'ūgī.
 
 
 
 
She calls while she drives.
ਗੱਡੀ ਚਲਾਉਣ ਵੇਲੇ ਉਹ ਫੋਨ ਕਰਦੀ ਹੈ।
Gaḍī calā'uṇa vēlē uha phōna karadī hai.
She watches TV while she irons.
ਕੱਪੜਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਪ੍ਰੈੱਸ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਉਹ ਟੀਵੀ ਦੇਖਦੀ ਹੈ।
Kapaṛi'āṁ nū praisa karadē samēṁ uha ṭīvī dēkhadī hai.
She listens to music while she does her work.
ਆਪਣਾ ਕੰਮ ਕਰਨ ਵੇਲੇ ਉਹ ਸੰਗੀਤ ਸੁਣਦੀ ਹੈ।
Āpaṇā kama karana vēlē uha sagīta suṇadī hai.
 
 
 
 
I can’t see anything when I don’t have glasses.
ਜਦੋਂ ਮੇਰੇ ਕੋਲ ਐਨਕ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਉਦੋਂ ਮੈਂ ਕੁਝ ਦੇਖ ਨਹੀਂ ਸਕਦਾ / ਸਕਦਾ।
Jadōṁ mērē kōla ainaka nahīṁ hudī udōṁ maiṁ kujha dēkha nahīṁ sakadā/ sakadā.
I can’t understand anything when the music is so loud.
ਜਦੋਂ ਸੰਗੀਤ ਉੱਚਾ ਵੱਜਦਾ ਹੈ ਤਾਂ ਮੈਂ ਕੁਝ ਸਮਝ ਨਹੀਂ ਪਾਉਂਦਾ / ਪਾਉਂਦੀ।
Jadōṁ sagīta ucā vajadā hai tāṁ maiṁ kujha samajha nahīṁ pā'undā/ pā'undī.
I can’t smell anything when I have a cold.
ਜਦੋਂ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਜ਼ੁਕਾਮ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਤਾਂ ਮੈਂ ਕੁਝ ਸੁੰਘ ਨਹੀਂ ਪਾਉਂਦਾ।
Jadōṁ mainū zukāma hudā hai tāṁ maiṁ kujha sugha nahīṁ pā'undā.
 
 
 
 
We’ll take a taxi if it rains.
ਜੇਕਰ ਬਾਰਿਸ਼ ਹੋਈ ਤਾਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਟੈਕਸੀ ਲਵਾਂਗੇ।
Jēkara bāriśa hō'ī tāṁ asīṁ ṭaikasī lavāṅgē.
We’ll travel around the world if we win the lottery.
ਜੇ ਸਾਡੀ ਲਾਟਰੀ ਲੱਗ ਗਈ ਤਾਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਸਾਰੀ ਦੁਨੀਆਂ ਘੁੰਮਾਂਗੇ।
Jē sāḍī lāṭarī laga ga'ī tāṁ asīṁ sārī dunī'āṁ ghumāṅgē.
We’ll start eating if he doesn’t come soon.
ਜੇਕਰ ਉਹ ਜਲਦੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਆਇਆਤਾਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਖਾਣਾ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਕਰਾਂਗੇ।
Jēkara uha jaladī nahīṁ ā'i'ātāṁ asīṁ khāṇā śurū karāṅgē.
 
 
 
 
 

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The languages of the European Union

Today the European Union consists of more than 25 countries. In the future, even more countries will belong to the EU. A new country usually means a new language as well. Currently, more than 20 different languages are spoken in the EU. All languages in the European Union are equal. This variety of languages is fascinating. But it can lead to problems as well. Skeptics believe that the many languages are an obstacle for the EU. They hinder efficient collaboration. Many think, therefore, that there should be a common language. All countries should be able to communicate with this language. But it's not that easy. No language can be named the one official language. The other countries would feel disadvantaged. And there isn't a truly neutral language in Europe… An artificial language such as Esperanto wouldn't work either. Because the culture of a country is always reflected in the language. Therefore, no country wants to relinquish its language. The countries see a part of their identity in their language. Language policy is an important item on the EU's agenda. There is even a commissioner for multilingualism. The EU has the most translators and interpreters worldwide. Around 3,500 people work to make an agreement possible. Nevertheless, not all documents can always be translated. That would take too much time and cost too much money. Most documents are only translated into a few languages. The many languages are one of the biggest challenges of the EU. Europe should unite, without losing its many identities!

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of about 12 million people. The majority of those people live in ****** and other countries in southeastern Europe. ______ is counted among the South Slavic languages. It is closely related to Croatian and Bosnian. The grammar and vocabulary are very similar. Such being the case, it is easy for ______s, Croatians, and Bosnians to understand each other. The ______ alphabet contains 30 letters. Each one has a distinct pronunciation.

Parallels to ancient tonal languages can be found in the intonation. In Chinese, for example, the pitch of the syllables changes with the meaning. That is similar to ______. However, in this case only the pitch of the accented syllable plays a role. The strongly inflectional language structure is another hallmark of ______. That means that nouns, verbs, adjectives and pronouns are always inflected. If you are interested in grammatical structures, you should definitely learn ______!

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