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68 [sixty-eight]

big – small





big and small
ਨਕਲੀ ਵਾਲ
chōṭā atē vaḍā
The elephant is big.
hāthī vaḍā hudā hai.
The mouse is small.
Cūhā chōṭā hudā hai.
dark and bright
Hanērā atē rauśanī
The night is dark.
ਸਮੁੰਦਰ ਤੱਟ
rāta hanērī hudī hai.
The day is bright.
Dina prakāśamāna hudā hai.
old and young
Buḍhā/ buḍhī/ buḍhē atē javāna
Our grandfather is very old.
sāḍē dādā jī bahuta buḍhē hana.
70 years ago he was still young.
70 Sāla pahilāṁ uha vī javāna sana.
beautiful and ugly
Sudara atē karūpa
The butterfly is beautiful.
titalī sudara hudī hai.
The spider is ugly.
Makaṛī karūpa hudī hai.
fat and thin
ਘਾਹ ਦੀਆਂ ਪੰਡਾਂ
Mōṭā/ mōṭī/ mōṭē atē patalā/ patalī/ patalē
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat.
100 kilō vālī aurata mōṭī hudī hai.
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin.
50 Kilō vālā ādamī patalā hudā hai.
expensive and cheap
Mahigā atē sasatā
The car is expensive.
gaḍī mahigī hudī hai.
The newspaper is cheap.
ਵਿਸ਼ਾਲ ਦ੍ਰਿਸ਼
Akhabāra sasatā hudā hai.


More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching. In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the ****o-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for ______. Another hallmark of ______ is its many vowels.

______ grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken ______ are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes ______ not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about ______ is that it is so completely logical!


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