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23 [twenty-three]

Learning foreign languages





Where did you learn Spanish?
tusīṁ sapēnī kithōṁ sikhī?
Can you also speak Portuguese?
Kī tusīṁ puratagālī vī jāṇadē hō?
Yes, and I also speak some Italian.
ਪੈਲੇਟ ਚਾਕੂ
Jī hāṁ, atē maiṁ thōṛhī jihī iṭālī'ana vī jāṇadā/ jāṇadī hāṁ.
I think you speak very well.
Mainū lagadā hai tusīṁ bahuta cagā bōladē hō?
The languages are quite similar.
Iha bhāśānvāṁ kāphī ikō jihī'āṁ hana.
I can understand them well.
Maiṁ uhanāṁ nū baṛī cagī tar'hāṁ samajha sakadā/ sakadī hāṁ.
But speaking and writing is difficult.
Para bōlaṇā atē likhaṇā muśakila hai.
I still make many mistakes.
Maiṁ huṇa vī ka'ī galatī'āṁ karadā/ karadī hāṁ.
Please correct me each time.
Kirapā karakē hamēśāṁ mērī'āṁ galatī'āṁ ṭhīka karanā.
Your pronunciation is very good.
Tuhāḍā ācaraṇa cagā hai.
You only have a slight accent.
Tusīṁ thōṛhē jihē savarāghāta nāla bōladē hō.
One can tell where you come from.
Tusīṁ kithōṁ dē vasanīka hō, iha patā lagadā hai.
What is your mother tongue / native language (am.)?
Tuhāḍī māṁ – bōlī kihaṛī hai?
Are you taking a language course?
Kī tusīṁ kō'ī bhāśā dā kōrasa kara rahē hō?
Which textbook are you using?
Tusīṁ kisa pusataka dā isatēmāla kara rahē hō?
I don’t remember the name right now.
Usadā nāma mainū ajē yāda nahīṁ.
The title is not coming to me.
ਸਿਲਾਈ ਧਾਗਾ
Mainū ajē usadā nāma yāda nahīṁ ā rihā.
I’ve forgotten it.
Maiṁ bhula gi'ā/ ga'ī.

Germanic Languages

The Germanic languages belong to the Indo-European language family. This linguistic group is characterized by its phonological features. Differences in the phonology distinguish these languages from others. There are about 15 Germanic languages. 500 million people worldwide speak them as their native tongue. The exact number of individual languages is difficult to determine. It is often unclear whether independent languages or only dialects exist. The most prominent Germanic language is English. It has 350 million native speakers worldwide. After that come German and Dutch. The Germanic languages are divided into different groups. There are North Germanic, West Germanic, and East Germanic. North Germanic languages are the Scandinavian languages. English, German and Dutch are West Germanic languages. The East Germanic languages have all become extinct. Old English, for example, belonged to this group. Colonization spread Germanic languages across the world. As a result, Dutch is understood in the Caribbean and in South Africa. All Germanic languages are derived from a common root. Whether or not there was a uniform proto-language is unclear. Besides that, only a few old Germanic texts exist. Unlike the Romance languages, there are hardly any sources. Research of the Germanic languages is more difficult as a result. Relatively little is also known about the culture of the Germanic people, or Teutons. The people of the Teutons did not unite. As a result there was no common identity. Therefore, science has to rely on other sources. Without Greeks and Romans, we would only know a little about the Teutons!

Guess the language!

______ is a member of the Romance language family. It is closely related to Spanish, French and Italian. It is spoken in Andorra, in the *****onia region of Spain and on the Balearic Islands. ______ is also spoken in parts of Aragon and in Valencia. A total of 12 million people speak or understand ______. The language arose between the 8th and 10th century in the Pyrenees region. It then spread to the south and east through territorial conquests. It is important to note that ______ is not a dialect of Spanish.

It evolved from Vulgar Latin and is considered an independent language. Therefore, Spaniards or Latin Americans do not automatically understand it. Many structures of ______ are similar to other Romance languages. But there are also a few features that do not occur in other languages. ______ speakers are very proud of their language. Learning ______ has been actively promoted by political groups for a few centuries. Learn ______ - this language has a future!


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