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16 [sixteen]

Seasons and Weather





These are the seasons:
rutāṁ isa prakāra hudī'āṁ hana:
Spring, summer,
autumn / fall (am.) and winter.
patajhaṛa atē saradī
The summer is warm.
garamī garama hudī hai.
The sun shines in summer.
Garamī vica sūraja camakadā hai.
We like to go for a walk in summer.
ਵਿਆਹ ਦੀ ਪੇਸ਼ਕਸ਼
Sānū garamī vica ṭahilaṇā cagā lagadā hai.
The winter is cold.
Saradī ṭhaḍī hudī hai.
It snows or rains in winter.
Saradī vica barapha paindī hai jāṁ bāriśa hudī hai.
We like to stay home in winter.
Sānū garamī vica ghara vica rahiṇā cagā lagadā hai.
It is cold.
Ṭhaḍa hai.
It is raining.
Bāriśa hō rahī hai.
It is windy.
Tūphānī hai.
It is warm.
Garamī hai.
It is sunny.
Dhupa hai.
It is pleasant.
Tikhī dhupa hai.
What is the weather like today?
Aja mausama kihō jihā hai?
It is cold today.
Aja ṭhaḍa hai.
It is warm today.
Aja garamī hai.

Learning and emotions

We are happy when we can communicate in a foreign language. We are proud of ourselves and our learning progress. On the other hand, if we aren't successful we're upset or disappointed. Different feelings are thus associated with learning. New studies have come to interesting results. They show that feelings play a role during learning. Because our emotions influence our success in learning. Learning is always a "problem" for our brain. And it wants to solve this problem. Whether or not it is successful depends on our emotions. If we believe we can solve the problem, we're confident. This emotional stability helps us in learning. Positive thinking promotes our intellectual abilities. On the other hand, learning under stress does not work as well. Doubt or worrying hinders good performance. We learn especially poorly when we are afraid. In that case, our brain cannot store new content very well. Therefore, it is important to always be motivated when learning. So emotions influence learning. But learning also influences our emotions! The same brain structures that process facts also process emotions. So learning can make you happy, and those who are happy learn better. Of course learning isn't always fun; it can also be tedious. For this reason we should always set small goals. This way we won't overtax our brain. And we guarantee that we can fulfill our expectations. Our success is then a reward that motivates us all over again. So: Learn something – and smile while you do so!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-European languages. However, it is not closely related to any other language in the world. Modern ______ must not be confused with Ancient ______. Ancient ______ is still taught at many schools and universities. In the past it was the language of philosophy and science. It was also used as a common language by those traveling through the ancient world. On the other hand, Modern ______ is the native language of about 13 million people. It evolved from ancient ______.

It is difficult to say when exactly Modern ______ originated. One thing is certain: it is more simply constructed than ancient ______. All the same, numerous archaic forms remain in Modern ______. It is a very uniform language too, in which no strong dialects are present. It is written with the ______ alphabet that is almost 2500 years old. An interesting fact is that ______ is counted among the languages that have the largest vocabulary. So if you like to learn vocabulary you should start with ______.


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book2 English UK - Punjabi for beginners