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5 [five]

Countries and Languages





John is from London.
jauna ladana tōṁ ā'i'ā hai.
London is in Great Britain.
ਵੱਡਾ ਪੰਛੀ
Ladana grēṭa briṭēna vica sathita hai.
He speaks English.
Uha agarēzī bōladā hai.
Maria is from Madrid.
Mārī'ā maiḍriḍa tōṁ ā'ī hai.
Madrid is in Spain.
Maiḍriḍa sapēna vica sathita hai.
She speaks Spanish.
Uha sapēnī bōladī hai.
Peter and Martha are from Berlin.
Pīṭara atē mārathā baralina tōṁ ā'ē hana.
Berlin is in Germany.
Baralina jaramanī vica sathita hai.
Do both of you speak German?
ਸਮੁੰਦਰੀ ਚਿੜੀ
Kī tusīṁ dōvēṁ jaramana bōla sakadē hō?
London is a capital city.
Ladana ika rājadhānī hai.
Madrid and Berlin are also capital cities.
Maiḍriḍa atē baralina vī rājadhānī'āṁ hana.
Capital cities are big and noisy.
Rājadhānī'āṁ vaḍī'āṁ atē śōra nāla bharī'āṁ hō'ī'āṁ hudī'āṁ hana.
France is in Europe.
Pharānsa yūrapa vica sathita hai.
Egypt is in Africa.
Misara apharīkā vica sathita hai.
Japan is in Asia.
Jāpāna ēśī'ā vica sathita hai.
Canada is in North America.
Kanēḍā utarī amarīkā vica sathita hai.
Panama is in Central America.
Panāmā madha – amarīkā vica sathita hai.
Brazil is in South America.
Brāzīla dakhaṇī amarīkā vica sathita hai.

Languages and dialects

There are 6,000 to 7,000 different languages worldwide. The number of dialects is of course much higher. But what is the difference between language and dialect? Dialects always have a clearly localized tone. They belong to the regional language varieties. This means dialects are a language form with the narrowest reach. As a general rule, dialects are only spoken, not written. They form their own linguistic system. And they follow their own rules. Theoretically, every language can have several dialects. All dialects fall under the standard language of a country. The standard language is understood by all the people of a country. With it, even speakers of different dialects can communicate with each other. Almost all dialects are becoming less important. You hardly hear dialects being spoken in cities anymore. The standard language is usually spoken at work as well. Therefore, dialect speakers are often said to be simple and uneducated. And yet they can be found at all social levels. So dialect speakers are no less intelligent than others. Quite the opposite! Those who speak in dialect have many advantages. In a language course, for example. Dialect speakers know that there are different linguistic forms. And they have learned to switch quickly between linguistic styles. Therefore, dialect speakers possess a higher competence for variation. They can sense which linguistic style fits with a certain situation. This has even been scientifically proven. So: Have courage in using dialect – it's worth it!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the South Slavic languages. About 10 million people speak ______. The majority of those people, of course, live in ********. ______ is spoken in other countries as well, however. Among those are Ukraine and Moldova. ______ is one of the oldest documented Slavic languages. It has many specific features too. The similarity to Albanian and Romanian is striking.

These languages are not Slavic languages. There are many parallels nevertheless. Therefore, all of these languages are also denoted as Balkan languages. They have a lot in common, although they are not related to each other. ______ verbs can take on many forms. There is also no infinitive in ______. If you want to learn this interesting language you will soon discover many new things!


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