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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


‫87 [ستاسی]‬

‫ماضی 1‬


We had to water the flowers.
‫ہمیں پھولوں کو پانی دینا پڑا-‬
hamein phoolon ko pani dena tha -
We had to clean the apartment.
‫ہمیں فلیٹ کی صفائی کرنی پڑی-‬
hamein flat ki safai karni thi -
We had to wash the dishes.
‫ہمیں برتن دھونے پڑے-‬
hamein bartan dhoney they -
Did you have to pay the bill?
‫کیا تم لوگوں کو بل ادا کرنا پڑا ؟‬
kya tum logon ko bil ada karna tha?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
‫کیا تم لوگوں کو ٹکٹ خریدنا پڑا ؟‬
kya tum logon ko ticket khareedna tha?
Did you have to pay a fine?
‫کیا تم لوگوں کو جرمانہ ادا کر نا پڑا؟‬
kya tum logon ko jurmana ada kar na tha?
Who had to say goodbye?
‫کسے خدا حافظ کہنا پڑا ؟‬
kisay khuda Hafiz kehna tha?
Who had to go home early?
‫کسے سویرے گھر جانا پڑا ؟‬
kisay saweray ghar jana tha?
Who had to take the train?
‫کسے ٹرین لینی پڑی ؟‬
kisay train leni thi?
We did not want to stay long.
‫ہم دیر تک رکنا نہیں چاہتے تھے -‬
hum der taq rukna nahi chahtay they -
We did not want to drink anything.
‫ہم کچھ پینا نہیں چاہتے تھے -‬
hum kuch piinaa nahi chahtay they -
We did not want to disturb you.
‫ہم پریشان کرنا نہیں چاہتے تھے -‬
hum pareshan karna nahi chahtay they -
I just wanted to make a call.
‫میں ابھی ٹیلیفون کرنا چاہتا تھا -‬
mein abhi telephone karna chahta tha -
I just wanted to call a taxi.
‫میں ٹیکسی آرڈر کرنا چاہتا تھا -‬
mein taxi order karna chahta tha -
Actually I wanted to drive home.
‫میں در اصل گھر جانا چاہتا تھا -‬
mein dar asal ghar jana chahta tha -
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
‫میں سمجھا تم اپنی بیوی کو ٹیلیفون کرنا چاہتے تھے -‬
mein samjha tum apni biwi ko telephone karna chahtay they -
I thought you wanted to call information.
‫میں سمجھا تم انکوائری کو ٹیلیفون کرنا چاہتے تھے -‬
mein samjha tum inquiry ko telephone karna chahtay they -
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
‫میں سمجھا تم پیزا آرڈر کرنا چاہتے تھے -‬
mein samjha tum pizza order karna chahtay they -

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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