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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must

 


‫72 [بہتّر]‬

‫کچھ کرنا‬

 

 
must
‫لازمی کرنا‬
feal haal
I must post the letter.
‫مجھے خط بھیجنا ہے -‬
mujhe khat bhejna hai -
I must pay the hotel.
‫مجھے ہوٹل کا بل ادا کرنا ہے -‬
mujhe hotel ka bil ada karna hai -
 
 
 
 
You must get up early.
‫تمھیں صبح سویرے اٹھنا ہے -‬
tumhen saweray uthna hai -
You must work a lot.
‫تمھیں بہت کام کرنا ہے -‬
tumhen bohat kaam karna hai -
You must be punctual.
‫تمھیں وقت پر آنا ہے ـ‬
tumhen waqt par aana hai -
 
 
 
 
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
‫اسے پٹرول بھرنا ہے -‬
usay petrol bherna hai -
He must repair the car.
‫اسے گاڑی مرمت کرنا ہے -‬
usay gaari murammat karna hai -
He must wash the car.
‫اسے گاڑی دھونا ہے -‬
usay gaari dhona hai -
 
 
 
 
She must shop.
‫اسے خریداری کرنی ہے -‬
usay kharidari karni hai -
She must clean the apartment.
‫اسے فلیٹ کی صفائی کرنی ہے -‬
usay flat ki safai karni hai -
She must wash the clothes.
‫اسے کپڑے دھونے ہیں -‬
usay kapray dhona hai -
 
 
 
 
We must go to school at once.
‫ہمیں فوراً اسکول جانا ہے -‬
hamein foran school jana hai -
We must go to work at once.
‫ہمیں فوراً کام پہ جانا ہے -‬
hamein foran kaam pay jana hai -
We must go to the doctor at once.
‫ہمیں فوراً ڈاکٹر کے پاس جانا ہے -‬
hamein foran dr ke paas jana hai -
 
 
 
 
You must wait for the bus.
‫تم لوگوں کو بس کا انتظار کرنا ہے -‬
tum logon ko bas ka intzaar karna hai -
You must wait for the train.
‫تم لوگوں کو ٹرین کا انتظار کرنا ہے -‬
tum logon ko train ka intzaar karna hai -
You must wait for the taxi.
‫تم لوگوں کو ٹیکسی کا انتظار کرنا ہے -‬
tum logon ko taxi ka intzaar karna hai -
 
 
 
 


Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!

 


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book2 English UK - Urdu for beginners