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83 [eighty-three]

Past tense 3

 


83 [тIокIиплIырэ щырэ]

БлэкIыгъэ шъуашэр 3

 

 
to make a call
телефонымкIэ гущыIэн
telefonymkIje gushhyIjen
I made a call.
Сэ телефонымкIэ сытеуагъ.
Sje telefonymkIje syteuag.
I was talking on the phone all the time.
Сэ ренэу телефонымкIэ сыгущыIэщтыгъ.
Sje renjeu telefonymkIje sygushhyIjeshhtyg.
 
 
 
 
to ask
кIэупчIэн
kIjeupchIjen
I asked.
Сэ сыкIэупчIагъ.
Sje sykIjeupchIag.
I always asked.
Сэ ренэу сыкIэупчIэщтыгъ.
Sje renjeu sykIjeupchIjeshhtyg.
 
 
 
 
to narrate
къэIотэн
kjeIotjen
I narrated.
Сэ къэсIотагъ.
Sje kjesIotag.
I narrated the whole story.
Сэ къэбарыр зэкIэ къэсIотагъ.
Sje kjebaryr zjekIje kjesIotag.
 
 
 
 
to study
зэгъэшIэн
zjegjeshIjen
I studied.
Сэ зэзгъэшIагъэ.
Sje zjezgjeshIagje.
I studied the whole evening.
Сэ пчыхьэ реным зэзгъэшIагъэ.
Sje pchyh'je renym zjezgjeshIagje.
 
 
 
 
to work
Iоф шIэн / лэжьэн
Iof shIjen / ljezh'jen
I worked.
Сэ Iоф сшIагъэ.
Sje Iof sshIagje.
I worked all day long.
Сэ мэфэ реным Iоф сшIагъэ
Sje mjefje renym Iof sshIagje
 
 
 
 
to eat
шхэн
shhjen
I ate.
Сэ сышхагъ.
Sje syshhag.
I ate all the food.
Сэ зэкIэри сшхыгъэ.
Sje zjekIjeri sshhygje.
 
 
 
 
 

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The history of linguistics

Languages have always fascinated mankind. The history of linguistics is therefore very long. Linguistics is the systematic study of language. Even thousands of years ago people contemplated language. In doing so, different cultures developed different systems. As a result, different descriptions of languages emerged. Today's linguistics are based on ancient theories more than anything else. Many traditions were established in Greece in particular. The oldest known work about language comes from India, however. It was written 3,000 years ago by the grammarian Sakatayana. In ancient times, philosophers like Plato busied themselves with languages. Later, Roman authors developed their theories further. Arabians, too, developed their own traditions in the 8th century. Even then, their works show precise descriptions of the Arabian language. In modern times, man particularly wanted to research where language comes from. Scholars were especially interested in the history of language. In the 18th century, people started to compare languages with each other. They wanted to understand how languages develop. Later they concentrated on languages as a system. The question of how languages function was the focal point. Today, a great number of schools of thought exist within linguistics. Many new disciplines have developed since the fifties. These were in part strongly influenced by other sciences. Examples are psycholinguistics or intercultural communication. The newer linguistic schools of thought are very specialized. One example of this is feminist linguistics. So the history of linguistics continues… As long as there are languages, man will contemplate them!

 


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