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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must

 


೭೨ [ಎಪ್ಪತ್ತೆರಡು]

ಏನಾದರು ಅವಶ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಮಾಡುವುದು

 

 
must
(ಅವಶ್ಯ) ಬೇಕು.
(avaśya) bēku.
I must post the letter.
ನಾನು ಆ ಕಾಗದವನ್ನು ಕಳುಹಿಸ(ಲೇ)ಬೇಕು.
Nānu ā kāgadavannu kaḷuhisa(lē)bēku.
I must pay the hotel.
ನಾನು ಆ ವಸತಿಗೃಹಕ್ಕೆ ಹಣ ಕೊಡ(ಲೇ)ಬೇಕು.
Nānu ā vasatigr̥hakke haṇa koḍa(lē)bēku.
 
 
 
 
You must get up early.
ನೀನು ಬೆಳಿಗ್ಗೆ ಬೇಗ ಏಳ(ಲೇ)ಬೇಕು.
Nīnu beḷigge bēga ēḷa(lē)bēku.
You must work a lot.
ನೀನು ತುಂಬಾ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡ(ಲೇ)ಬೇಕು.
Nīnu tumbā kelasa māḍa(lē)bēku.
You must be punctual.
ನೀನು ಕಾಲನಿಷ್ಠನಾಗಿರ(ಲೇ)ಬೇಕು.
Nīnu kālaniṣṭhanāgira(lē)bēku.
 
 
 
 
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
ಅವನು ಪೆಟ್ರೋಲ್ ತುಂಬಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು.
Avanu peṭrōl tumbisikoḷḷabēku.
He must repair the car.
ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಕಾರನ್ನು ರಿಪೇರಿ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು.
Avanu tanna kārannu ripēri māḍikoḷḷabēku.
He must wash the car.
ಅವನು ತನ್ನ ಕಾರನ್ನು ತೊಳೆಯಬೇಕು.
Avanu tanna kārannu toḷeyabēku.
 
 
 
 
She must shop.
ಅವಳು ಕೊಂಡು ಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು.
Avaḷu koṇḍu koḷḷabēku.
She must clean the apartment.
ಅವಳು ಮನೆಯನ್ನು ಸ್ವಚ್ಚಗೊಳಿಸಬೇಕು.
Avaḷu maneyannu svaccagoḷisabēku.
She must wash the clothes.
ಅವಳು ಬಟ್ಟೆಗಳನ್ನು ಒಗೆಯಬೇಕು.
Avaḷu baṭṭegaḷannu ogeyabēku.
 
 
 
 
We must go to school at once.
ನಾವು ಈ ಕೂಡಲೆ ಶಾಲೆಗೆ ಹೋಗಬೇಕು
Nāvu ī kūḍale śālege hōgabēku
We must go to work at once.
ನಾವು ಈ ಕೂಡಲೆ ಕೆಲಸಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಗಬೇಕು.
nāvu ī kūḍale kelasakke hōgabēku.
We must go to the doctor at once.
ನಾವು ಈ ಕೂಡಲೆ ವೈದ್ಯರ ಬಳಿ ಹೋಗಬೇಕು.
Nāvu ī kūḍale vaidyara baḷi hōgabēku.
 
 
 
 
You must wait for the bus.
ನೀವು ಬಸ್ ಗೆ ಕಾಯಬೇಕು.
Nīvu bas ge kāyabēku.
You must wait for the train.
ನೀವು ರೈಲು ಗಾಡಿಗೆ ಕಾಯಬೇಕು.
Nīvu railu gāḍige kāyabēku.
You must wait for the taxi.
ನೀವು ಟ್ಯಾಕ್ಸಿಗೆ ಕಾಯಬೇಕು.
Nīvu ṭyāksige kāyabēku.
 
 
 
 


Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

*****w is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. *****w is the native language of 5 million people. Modern *****w is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient *****w. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient *****w was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The *****w semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. *****w text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns *****w learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!

 


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