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93 [ninety-three]

Subordinate clauses: if


೯೩ [ತೊಂಬತ್ತಮೂರು]

ಅಧೀನ ವಾಕ್ಯ - 'ಹೌದು ಅಥವಾ ಇಲ್ಲ'


I don’t know if he loves me.
ಅವನು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಪ್ರೀತಿಸುತ್ತಾನೊ ಇಲ್ಲವೊ ನನಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.
avanu nannannu prītisuttāno illavo nanage gottilla.
I don’t know if he’ll come back.
ಅವನು ಹಿಂತಿರುಗಿ ಬರುತ್ತಾನೊ ಇಲ್ಲವೊ ನನಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.
Avanu hintirugi baruttāno illavo nanage gottilla.
I don’t know if he’ll call me.
ಅವನು ನನಗೆ ಫೋನ್ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾನೊ ಇಲ್ಲವೊ ನನಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.
Avanu nanage phōn māḍuttāno illavo nanage gottilla.
Maybe he doesn’t love me?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಪ್ರೀತಿಸುವುದಿಲ್ಲವೇನೋ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu nannannu prītisuvudillavēnō?
Maybe he won’t come back?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ಹಿಂತಿರುಗಿ ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲವೇನೋ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu hintirugi baruvudillavēnō?
Maybe he won’t call me?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ನನಗೆ ಫೋನ್ ಮಾಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲವೇನೋ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu nanage phōn māḍuvudillavēnō?
I wonder if he thinks about me.
ಅವನು ನನ್ನ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಯೋಚಿಸುತ್ತಾನೊ ಇಲ್ಲವೊ ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ.
Avanu nanna bagge yōcisuttāno illavo embudu nanna praśne.
I wonder if he has someone else.
ಅವನು ಇನ್ನೊಬ್ಬಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದ್ದಾನೆಯೆ ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ.
Avanu innobbaḷannu hondiddāneye embudu nanna praśne.
I wonder if he lies.
ಅವನು ಸುಳ್ಳು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೊ ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಚಿಂತೆ.
Avanu suḷḷu hēḷuttāno embudu nanna cinte.
Maybe he thinks of me?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ನನ್ನ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಆಲೋಚಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu nanna bagge ālōcisuttāne?
Maybe he has someone else?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ಇನ್ನೊಬ್ಬಳನ್ನುಹೊಂದಿದ್ದಾನೆ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu innobbaḷannuhondiddāne?
Maybe he tells me the truth?
ಬಹುಶಃ ಅವನು ನನಗೆ ನಿಜ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ?
Bahuśaḥ avanu nanage nija hēḷuttāne?
I doubt whether he really likes me.
ಅವನಿಗೆ ನಾನು ನಿಜವಾಗಿಯು ಇಷ್ಟವೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದು ನನ್ನ ಸಂದೇಹ.
Avanige nānu nijavāgiyu iṣṭave ennuvudu nanna sandēha.
I doubt whether he’ll write to me.
ಅವನು ನನಗೆ ಬರೆಯುತ್ತಾನೆಯೇ ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಸಂದೇಹ.
Avanu nanage bareyuttāneyē embudu nanna sandēha.
I doubt whether he’ll marry me.
ಅವನು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಮದುವೆ ಆಗುತ್ತಾನೆಯೇ ಎನ್ನುವುದನ್ನು ನನ್ನ ಸಂದೇಹ.
Avanu nannannu maduve āguttāneyē ennuvudannu nanna sandēha.
Does he really like me?
ಅವನು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ನಿಜವಾಗಲು ಪ್ರೀತಿಸುತ್ತಾನಾ?
Avanu nannannu nijavāgalu prītisuttānā?
Will he write to me?
ಅವನು ನನಗೆ ಬರೆಯುತ್ತಾನಾ?
Avanu nanage bareyuttānā?
Will he marry me?
ಅವನು ನನ್ನನ್ನು ಮದುವೆ ಆಗುತ್ತಾನಾ?
Avanu nannannu maduve āguttānā?

How does the brain learn grammar?

We begin to learn our native language as babies. This happens automatically. We are not aware of it. Our brain has to accomplish a great deal when learning, however. When we learn grammar, for example, it has a lot of work to do. Every day it hears new things. It receives new stimuli constantly. The brain can't process every stimulus individually, however. It has to act economically. Therefore, it orients itself toward regularity. The brain remembers what it hears often. It registers how often a specific thing occurs. Then it makes a grammatical rule out of these examples. Children know whether a sentence is correct or not. However, they don't know why that is. Their brain knows the rules without having learned them. Adults learn languages differently. They already know the structures of their native language. These build the basis for the new grammatical rules. But in order to learn, adults need teaching. When the brain learns grammar, it has a fixed system. This can be seen with nouns and verbs, for example. They are stored in different regions of the brain. Different areas of the brain are active when processing them. Simple rules are also learned differently than complex rules. With complex rules, more areas of the brain work together. How exactly the brain learns grammar hasn't been researched yet. However, we know that it can theoretically learn every grammar rule…

Guess the language!

______sian is among the languages that dominate the book market. Great works in world literature were written by ______sian authors. Thus many books are translated from ______sian. ______sians also enjoy reading new texts so translators always have a lot to do. ______sian is the native language of about 160 million people. Additionally, many people in other Slavic countries speak ______sian. With that, ______sian is the most widespread language in Europe. Approximately 280 million people speak ______sian worldwide.

As an Eastern Slavic language, ______sian is related to Ukrainian and Bela______ian. ______sian grammar is structured very systematically. That is an advantage for people who like to think analytically and logically. ______sian is absolutely worth learning! ______sian is an important language in science, art and technology. And wouldn't it be nice to be able to read famous ______sian literary works in their original form?

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