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32 [thirty-two]

At the restaurant 4


‫32 [إثنان وثلاثون]‬

‫في المطعم 4‬


I’d like chips / French fries (am.) with ketchup.
‫صحن بطاطا مقلية مع صلصة البندورة.‬
shin bitatana maqliatan mae sulsat albandurata.
And two with mayonnaise.
‫وصحنان مع المايونيز،‬
wsahnan mae almayuniz,
And three sausages with mustard.
‫وثلاثة مع نقانق مقلية وخردل.‬
wthalathat mae nuqaniq maqaliat wakharadil.
What vegetables do you have?
‫ما هي الخضروات التي لديكم؟‬
ma hi alkhadruat alty ladaykam?
Do you have beans?
‫ألديكم حب فاصولياء؟‬
aludikum hubun faswlya'a?
Do you have cauliflower?
‫ألديكم قرنبيط / زهرة؟‬
aludaykum qarnabit / zahrata?
I like to eat (sweet) corn.
‫أحب أكل الذرة.‬
ahab 'akl aldhirata.
I like to eat cucumber.
‫أحب أكل الخيار.‬
ahab 'akl alkhiara.
I like to eat tomatoes.
‫أحب أكل البندورة.‬
ahab 'akl albandurat.
Do you also like to eat leek?
‫أتحب الكراث أيضًا ؟‬
iatahab alkirath aydana ?
Do you also like to eat sauerkraut?
‫أتحب مخلل الملفوف أيضًا ؟‬
iatahab mukhlal almlfwf aydana ?
Do you also like to eat lentils?
‫أتحب العدس أيضًا ؟‬
iatahab aleuds aydana ?
Do you also like to eat carrots?
‫أتحب أيضاَ الجزر؟‬
atahab ayda aljazr?
Do you also like to eat broccoli?
‫أتحب أيضاً البروكلي؟‬
atahab aydaan albarukali?
Do you also like to eat peppers?
‫أتحب أيضا الفلفل الأحمر؟‬
atuhab 'aydaan alfilfil al'ahmara?
I don’t like onions.
‫لا أحب البصل.‬
la 'uhibu albasla.
I don’t like olives.
‫لا أحب الزيتون.‬
la 'uhibu alzaytun.
I don’t like mushrooms.
‫لا أحب الفطر.‬
laa 'uhibu alfatra.

Tonal Languages

Most of all the languages spoken worldwide are tonal languages. With tonal languages, the pitch of the tones is crucial. They determine what meaning words or syllables have. Thus, the tone belongs firmly to the word. Most of the languages spoken in Asia are tonal languages. For example, Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese. There are also various tonal languages in Africa. Many indigenous languages in America are tonal languages as well. Indo-European languages mostly contain only tonal elements. This applies to Swedish or Serbian, for example. The number of tone pitches is varied in individual languages. Four different tones are distinguishable in Chinese. With this, the syllable ma can have four meanings. They are mother, hemp, horse and to rant. Interestingly, tonal languages also impact our hearing. Studies on absolute hearing have shown this. Absolute hearing is the ability to identify heard tones accurately. Absolute hearing occurs very rarely in Europe and North America. Fewer than 1 in 10,000 people have it. It's different with native speakers of Chinese. Here, 9 times as many people have this special ability. We all had absolute hearing when we were infants. We used it to learn to speak correctly. Unfortunately, most people lose it later on. The pitch of tones is also important in music. This is especially true for cultures that speak a tonal language. They must adhere to the melody very precisely. Otherwise a beautiful love song comes out as an absurd song!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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book2 English US - Arabic for beginners