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95 [ninety-five]

Conjunctions 2

 


‫95 [پچانوے]‬

‫حرف ربط 2‬

 

 
Since when is she no longer working?
‫وہ کب سے کام نہیں کر رہی ہے ؟‬
woh kab se kaam nahi kar rahi hai?
Since her marriage?
‫کیا جب سے اس کی شادی ہوئی ہے ؟‬
jab se is ki shadi hui hai?
Yes, she is no longer working since she got married.
‫ہاں، جب سے اس کی شادی ہوئی ہے وہ کام نہیں کر رہی ہے -‬
haan, jab se is ki shadi hui hai woh kaam nahi kar rahi hai -
 
 
 
 
Since she got married, she’s no longer working.
‫جب سے اس کی شادی ہوئی ہے وہ کام نہیں کر رہی ہے -‬
jab se is ki shadi hui hai woh kaam nahi kar rahi hai -
Since they have met each other, they are happy.
‫جب سے وہ ایک دوسرے سے ملیں ہیں وہ خوش ہیں -‬
jab se woh aik dosray se milein hain woh khush hain -
Since they have had children, they rarely go out.
‫جب سے ان کے بچّے ہوئے ہیں وہ کم کم باہر جاتے ہیں -‬
jab se un ke bachay hue hain woh kam kam bahar jatay hain -
 
 
 
 
When does she call?
‫وہ کب ٹیلیفون کرتی ہے ؟‬
woh kab telephone karti hai?
When driving?
‫سفر کے دوران ؟کیا‬
safar ke douran?
Yes, when she is driving.
‫ہاں، جب وہ گاڑی چلاتی ہے -‬
haan, jab woh gaari chala ti hai -
 
 
 
 
She calls while she drives.
‫جب وہ گاڑی چلاتی ہے تو ٹیلیفون کرتی ہے -‬
jab woh gaari chalati hai to telephone karti hai -
She watches TV while she irons.
‫جب وہ استری کرتی ہے تو ٹی وی دیکھتی ہے -‬
jab woh istri karti hai to TV dekhatii hai -
She listens to music while she does her work.
‫جب وہ اپنا کام کرتی ہے تو موسیقی سنتی ہے -‬
jab woh apna kaam karti hai to moseeqi sunthee hai -
 
 
 
 
I can’t see anything when I don’t have glasses.
‫جب میرے پاس عینک نہیں ہوتی ہے مجھے کچھ نظر نہیں آتا ہے -‬
jab mere paas aynak nahi hoti hai mujhe kuch nazar nahi aata hai -
I can’t understand anything when the music is so loud.
‫جب موسیقی تیزہوتی ہے مجھے کچھ سمجھ نہیں آتا ہے -‬
jab moseeqi tajhta hai mujhe kuch samajh nahi aata hai -
I can’t smell anything when I have a cold.
‫جب مجھے نزلہ ہوتا ہے میں کچھ نہیں سونگھ سکتا ہوں -‬
jab mujhe nazla hota hai mein kuch nahi sungh sakta hon -
 
 
 
 
We’ll take a taxi if it rains.
‫اگر بارش ہو گی تو ہم ٹیکسی لیں گے -‬
agar barish ho gi hum taxi len ge -
We’ll travel around the world if we win the lottery.
‫اگر ہم لوٹو میں جیتیں گے تو دنیا کا سفر کریں گے -‬
agar hum looto mein jiiten ge duniya ka safar karen ge -
We’ll start eating if he doesn’t come soon.
‫اگر وہ جلدی نہیں آتا ہے تو ہم کھانا شروع کر دیں گے -‬
agar woh jaldi nahi aata hai hum khana shuru kar den ge -
 
 
 
 


The languages of the European Union

Today the European Union consists of more than 25 countries. In the future, even more countries will belong to the EU. A new country usually means a new language as well. Currently, more than 20 different languages are spoken in the EU. All languages in the European Union are equal. This variety of languages is fascinating. But it can lead to problems as well. Skeptics believe that the many languages are an obstacle for the EU. They hinder efficient collaboration. Many think, therefore, that there should be a common language. All countries should be able to communicate with this language. But it's not that easy. No language can be named the one official language. The other countries would feel disadvantaged. And there isn't a truly neutral language in Europe… An artificial language such as Esperanto wouldn't work either. Because the culture of a country is always reflected in the language. Therefore, no country wants to relinquish its language. The countries see a part of their identity in their language. Language policy is an important item on the EU's agenda. There is even a commissioner for multilingualism. The EU has the most translators and interpreters worldwide. Around 3,500 people work to make an agreement possible. Nevertheless, not all documents can always be translated. That would take too much time and cost too much money. Most documents are only translated into a few languages. The many languages are one of the biggest challenges of the EU. Europe should unite, without losing its many identities!

Guess the language!

______an is the native language of about 12 million people. The majority of those people live in ______a and other countries in southeastern Europe. ______an is counted among the South Slavic languages. It is closely related to Croatian and Bosnian. The grammar and vocabulary are very similar. Such being the case, it is easy for ______ans, Croatians, and Bosnians to understand each other. The ______an alphabet contains 30 letters. Each one has a distinct pronunciation.

Parallels to ancient tonal languages can be found in the intonation. In Chinese, for example, the pitch of the syllables changes with the meaning. That is similar to ______an. However, in this case only the pitch of the accented syllable plays a role. The strongly inflectional language structure is another hallmark of ______an. That means that nouns, verbs, adjectives and pronouns are always inflected. If you are interested in grammatical structures, you should definitely learn ______an!

 


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