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76 [seventy-six]

giving reasons 2


‫76 [چہتّر]‬

‫وجہ بتانا 2‬


Why didn’t you come?
‫تم کیوں نہیں آئے ؟‬
tum kiyon nahi aaye?
I was ill.
‫میں بیمار تھا -‬
mein bemaar tha -
I didn’t come because I was ill.
‫میں نہیں آیا کیونکہ میں بیمار تھا -‬
mein nahi aaya kyunkay mein bemaar tha -
Why didn’t she come?
‫وہ کیوں نہیں آئی ؟‬
woh kiyon nahi aayi?
She was tired.
‫وہ تھکی ہوئی تھی -‬
woh thaki hui thi -
She didn’t come because she was tired.
‫وہ نہیں آئی کیونکہ وہ تھکی ہوئی تھی -‬
woh nahi aayi kyunkay woh thaki hui thi -
Why didn’t he come?
‫وہ کیوں نہیں آیا ؟‬
woh kiyon nahi aaya?
He wasn’t interested.
‫اسکی طبیعت نہیں چاہی -‬
uski tabiyat nahi chahi -
He didn’t come because he wasn’t interested.
‫وہ نہیں آیا کیونکہ اس کی طبیعت نہیں چاہی -‬
woh nahi aaya kyunkay is ki tabiyat nahi chahi -
Why didn’t you come?
‫تم لوگ کیوں نہیں آئے ؟‬
tum log kiyon nahi aaye?
Our car is damaged.
‫ہماری گاڑی خراب ہے -‬
hamari gaari kharab hai -
We didn’t come because our car is damaged.
‫ہم نہیں آئے کیونکہ ہماری گاڑی خراب ہے -‬
hum nahi aaye kyunkay hamari gaari kharab hai -
Why didn’t the people come?
‫لوگ کیوں نہیں آئے ؟‬
log kiyon nahi aaye?
They missed the train.
‫انکی ٹرین چھوٹ گئی ہے -‬
unki train chhuut gayi -
They didn’t come because they missed the train.
‫وہ لوگ نہیں آئے کیونکہ ان کی ٹرین چھوٹ گئی ہے-‬
woh log nahi aaye kyunkay un ki train chhuut gayi -
Why didn’t you come?
‫تم کیوں نہیں آئے ؟‬
tum kiyon nahi aaye?
I was not allowed to.
‫مجھے اجازت نہیں تھی -‬
mujhe ijazat nahi thi -
I didn’t come because I was not allowed to.
‫میں نہیں آیا کیونکہ مجھے اجازت نہیں تھی -‬
mein nahi aaya kyunkay mujhe ijazat nahi thi -

The indigenous languages of America

Many different languages are spoken in America. English is the main language in North America. Spanish and Portuguese dominate in South America. All of these languages came to America from Europe. Before colonization, other languages were spoken there. These languages are known as the indigenous languages of America. Until today, they haven't been explored substantially. The variety of these languages is enormous. It is estimated that there are about 60 language families in North America. In South America there could even be as many as 150. Additionally, there are many isolated languages. All of these languages are very different. They exhibit only a few common structures. Therefore, it is difficult to classify the languages. The reason for their differences lies in the history of America. America was colonized in several stages. The first people came to America over more than 10,000 years ago. Each population brought its language to the continent. The indigenous languages are most similar to Asian languages. The situation regarding America's ancient languages isn't the same everywhere. Many Native American languages are still in use in South America. Languages like Guarani or Quechua have millions of active speakers. By contrast, many languages in North America are almost extinct. The culture of the Native Americans of North America was long oppressed. In the process, their languages were lost. But interest in them has increased in the last few decades. There are many programs that aim to nurture and protect the languages. So they could have a future after all…

Guess the language!

The Japanese language is surely one of the most fascinating. Many people find the writing system especially interesting. It is comprised of Chinese symbols and two syllabaries. Another characteristic of Japanese is that it has many dialects. These differ from one another significantly in some cases. Thus it is possible that two speakers from different regions do not understand each other. Japanese has a melodic accent. If a word needs to be emphasized it is not spoken louder.

The pitches of the sounds are varied. Approximately 130 million people speak Japanese. Naturally, the majority of those live in Japan. There are also large groups of Japanese speakers in Brazil and North America. They are the descendants of Japanese emigrants. There are relatively few true second language speakers. That is exactly what should motivate us to learn this exciting language!


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