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96 [ninety-six]

Conjunctions 3


‫96 [ستة وتسعون]‬

‫حروف العطف 3‬


I get up as soon as the alarm rings.
‫أنهض من النوم بمجرد أن يدق المنبه.‬
anahdho men ennawm bemojarrad an yadokka eljaras
I become tired as soon as I have to study.
‫أصير متعبًا بمجرد أن يكون عليّ أن أدرس.‬
asiiro moteaban bimojarradian yakoona alayyaa an adros
I will stop working as soon as I am 60.
‫سأتوقف عن العمل بمجرد أن أصير في الستين.‬
satawakkafo an elamal bimojarradi an asiira fissettiin
When will you call?
‫متى أنت ستتصل؟‬
mataa anta satattasel?
As soon as I have a moment.
‫بمجرد أن يصبح عندي لحظة من وقت.‬
bimojarrad ani yosbiha endii lahtha men wakt
He’ll call, as soon as he has a little time.
‫سيتصل هو بمجرد أن يصبح عنده وقت.‬
sayattasilo howa bimojarradi an yosbiha endaho wa9t
How long will you work?
‫إلى متى سوف تشتغل؟‬
ilaa mataa sawfa tashtaghel?
I’ll work as long as I can.
‫سوف أعمل طالما قدرت على ذلك.‬
sawfa aeamal taalamaa kaderto ala thaalik
I’ll work as long as I am healthy.
‫سوف أعمل طالما أنني بصحة جيدة.‬
sawfa aeamal taalamaa anni bessahtin jayyida
He lies in bed instead of working.
‫إنه يتمدد في السرير، بدلاً من أن يعمل.‬
ennaho yatamaddado fissariir, badalan mina elaeamel
She reads the newspaper instead of cooking.
‫إنها تقرأ الجريدة، بدلاً من أن تطبخ.‬
innaha takra'o eljariida, badalan men an tatbokh
He is at the bar instead of going home.
‫إنه يجلس في الحانة، بدلاً من أن يذهب إلى البيت.‬
ennaho yajliss fielhaana, badalan men an yadhhab ilaa elbayt
As far as I know, he lives here.
‫حسب ما أعلم فإنه يسكن هنا.‬
hasba maa aealamoho fa'innaho yaskon honaa
As far as I know, his wife is ill.
‫حسب ما أعلم فإن زوجته مريضة.‬
hasba maa aealamoho fa'inna zawjataho mariitha
As far as I know, he is unemployed.
‫حسب ما أعلم فإنه عاطل عن العمل.‬
hasba maa aealamoho fa'innaho aeaatilon an elaamal
I overslept; otherwise I’d have been on time.
‫لقد راحت عليّ نومة، وإلاّ لكنت حسب الموعد.‬
lakar raahat alayyaa nawma, w ilaa lakonto hasba elmawead
I missed the bus; otherwise I’d have been on time.
‫لقد فاتني الباص، وإلاّ لكنت حسب الموعد.‬
lakad faatanii elbaas, w ilaa lakonto hasba elmawead
I didn’t find the way / I got lost; otherwise I’d have been on time.
‫لم أجد الطريق، وإلاّ لكنت حسب الموعد.‬
lam ajed ettariik, w illaa lakonto hasba elmawead

Language and math

Thinking and speech go together. They influence one another. Linguistic structures influence the structures of our thinking. In some languages, for example, there are no words for numbers. The speakers do not understand the concept of numbers. So math and language also go together in some way. Grammatical and mathematical structures are often similar. Some researchers believe that they are also processed similarly. They believe that the speech centre is also responsible for math. It can help the brain to perform calculations. Recent studies are coming to another conclusion, however. They show that our brain processes math without speech. Researchers studied three men. The brains of these test subjects were injured. As a result, the speech centre was also damaged. The men had big problems with speaking. They could no longer formulate simple sentences. They couldn't understand words either. After the speech test the men had to solve math problems. A few of these mathematical puzzles were very complex. Even so, the test subjects could solve them! The results of this study are very interesting. They show that math is not encoded with words. It's possible that language and math have the same basis. Both are processed from the same centre. But math doesn't have to be translated into speech first. Perhaps language and math develop together too... Then when the brain has finished developing, they exist separately!

Guess the language!

______ian is counted among the West Slavic languages. It is the native language of more than 5 million people. It is very closely related to the neighboring Czech. This is due to their mutual past in former Czecho______ia. The vocabulary of the two languages is largely identical. The differences are primarily in the phonology. ______ian emerged in the 10th century in the form of multiple dialects. It was then influenced by neighboring languages over a long period of time.

Today's standard language was not established until the 19th century. Some elements could thus be simplified compared to those in Czech. The many different dialects have been upheld until today though. ______ian is written with the Latin alphabet. And it is the language that is easiest to understand for other Slavic speakers. It could be said that ______ian is a type of intermediate language in the Slavic region. This is a good reason to grapple with this beautiful language.


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners