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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


‫87 [سبعة وثمانون]‬

‫ماضي الأفعال المساعدة 1‬


We had to water the flowers.
‫لقد توجب علينا أن نسقي الورود.‬
lakad tawajjaba alayna an naskii elworood
We had to clean the apartment.
‫لقد توجب علينا أن نرتب الشقة.‬
lakad tawajjaba alayna an norattiba eshshokka
We had to wash the dishes.
‫لقد توجب علينا أن نغسل الصحون.‬
lakad tawajjaba alayna an naghsila essohoon
Did you have to pay the bill?
‫هل قد توجب عليكم أن تدفعوا الفاتورة؟‬
hal kad tawajjaba alaykom an tadfaeoo elfaatoora?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
‫هل قد توجب عليكم أن تدفعوا رسم دخول؟‬
hal kad tawajjaba alaykom an tadfaeoo rasma dokhool?
Did you have to pay a fine?
‫هل قد توجب عليكم أن تدفعوا غرامة؟‬
hal kad tawajjaba alaykom an tadfaeoo gharaama?
Who had to say goodbye?
‫من الذي قد توجب عليه أن يودع؟‬
man ellathii tawajjaba alayhi an yowaddaea?
Who had to go home early?
‫من الذي قد توجب عليه أن يذهب مبكراً إلى البيت؟‬
man ellathii tawajaba alayhi an yathhaba mobakkiran ilaa elbayt?
Who had to take the train?
‫من الذي قد توجب عليه أن يأخذ القطار؟‬
man ellathii tawajjaba alayhi an ya'khotha elkitaar?
We did not want to stay long.
‫لقد أردنا أن لا نبقى طويلاً.‬
lakd aradnaa an laa nabkaa tawiilan
We did not want to drink anything.
‫لقد أردنا أن لا نشرب شيئًا.‬
lakad aradnaa an nashraba shay'an
We did not want to disturb you.
‫لقد أردنا أن لا نزعج.‬
lakad aradnaa an laa nozija
I just wanted to make a call.
‫لقد أردت أن أتصل للتو بالتلفون.‬
lakad aradto an attasila lettaw bettelifoon
I just wanted to call a taxi.
‫أردت أن أطلب سيارة أجرة.‬
aradto an atloba sayyaarat ojraa
Actually I wanted to drive home.
‫أردت تحديداً أن أذهب إلى البيت.‬
aradto tahdiidan an athhaba ilaa elbayt
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
‫فكرت أنك أردت أن تخابر زوجتك.‬
fakarto annaka aradta an tokhaabera zawjataka
I thought you wanted to call information.
‫فكرت أنك أردت أن تتصل بالإستعلامات.‬
fakkarto annaka aradta an tatasila belisteaelaamaat
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
‫فكرت أنك أردت أن تطلب بيتزا.‬
fakkarto annaka aradta an tatloba pitza

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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