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58 [fifty-eight]

Parts of the body


‫58 [ثمانية وخمسون]‬

‫أجزاء الجسم‬


I am drawing a man.
‫أرسم رجلاً.‬
arsom rajolan
First the head.
‫الرأس أولاً.‬
arra's awalan
The man is wearing a hat.
‫الرجل يرتدى قبعة.‬
arrajol yartadii kobbaa
One cannot see the hair.
‫الشعر لا يراه أحد.‬
ashshaar laa yaraah ahad
One cannot see the ears either.
‫الأذنان لا يراهما أحد أيضاً.‬
elothonaan laa yaraahomaa ahad aydhan
One cannot see his back either.
‫الظهر لا يراه أحد أيضاً.‬
adhahr laa yaraah ahad aydhan
I am drawing the eyes and the mouth.
‫أرسم العينين والفم.‬
orsom elaynaan welfam
The man is dancing and laughing.
‫الرجل يرقص ويضحك.‬
arrajol yarkos w yadhhak
The man has a long nose.
‫الرجل له أنف طويل.‬
errajol laho anf tawiil
He is carrying a cane in his hands.
‫هو يحمل بيديه عصاً.‬
howa yahmel biyadihi asan
He is also wearing a scarf around his neck.
‫هو يرتدي وشاحًا حول العنق.‬
howa yartadii wishaahan hawla elonok
It is winter and it is cold.
‫الفصل شتاءً والجو بارد.‬
elfassl shitaa weljaw baared
The arms are athletic.
‫الذراعان قويتان.‬
edhiraaeaan kawiiyataan
The legs are also athletic.
‫الساقان أيضاً قويتان.‬
essaakaan aythan kawiiyataan
The man is made of snow.
‫الرجل مصنوع من الثلج.‬
errojol masnooa men eththalj
He is neither wearing pants nor a coat.
‫هو لا يرتدي بنطلوناً [بنطالا] ولا معطفًا.‬
howa laa yartadii bantaloonan [bentaalan] wa laa meatafan
But the man is not freezing.
‫لكن الرجل لا غير بردان.‬
lkinn alrrajul la ghyr bardana
He is a snowman.
‫هو رجل من ثلج.‬
howa rajolon menaththalj

The language of our ancestors

Modern languages can be analyzed by linguists. Various methods are used to do so. But how did people speak thousands of years ago? It is much more difficult to answer this question. Despite this, scientists have been busy researching for years. They would like to explore how people spoke earlier. In order to do this, they attempt to reconstruct ancient speech forms. American scientists have now made an exciting discovery. They analyzed more than 2,000 languages. In particular they analyzed the sentence structure of the languages. The results of their study were very interesting. About half of the languages had the S-O-V sentence structure. That is to say, the sentences are ordered by subject, object and verb. More than 700 languages follow the pattern S-V-O. And about 160 languages operate according to the V-S-O system. Only about 40 languages use the V-O-S pattern. 120 languages display a hybrid. On the other hand, O-V-S and O-S-V are distinctly rarer systems. The majority of the analyzed languages use the S-O-V principle. Persian, Japanese and Turkish are some examples. Most living languages follow the S-V-O pattern, however. This sentence structure dominates the Indo-European language family today. Researchers believe that the S-O-V model was used earlier. All languages are based on this system. But then the languages diverged. We don't yet know how that happened. However, the variation of sentence structures must have had a reason. Because in evolution, only that which has an advantage prevails…

Guess the language!

______ is one of the Indo-Iranian languages. It is the native language of about 200 million people. More than 140 million of those people live in Bangladesh. There are also approximately 75 million speakers in India. Additional speakers are found in Malaysia, Nepal and Saudi Arabia. ______ is thus one of the most spoken languages of the world. The language has its own writing system. There are even distinct symbols for numbers.

Nowadays, however, Arabic digits are used most of the time. ______ syntax follows strict rules. The subject comes first, then the object, and finally the verb. There are no grammatical genders. Nouns and adjectives also vary only slightly. That is a good thing for everyone that wants to learn this important language. And as many as possible should do so!


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners