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5 [five]

Countries and Languages


‫5 [خمسة]‬

‫البلدان واللغات‬


John is from London.
‫جون من لندن.‬
john min london
London is in Great Britain.
‫تقع لندن في بريطانيا العظمى.‬
takaa london fi britania elodhmaa
He speaks English.
‫هو يتكلم الإنجليزية.‬
howa yatakallam elinjalizia
Maria is from Madrid.
‫ماريا من مدريد.‬
maria min madrid
Madrid is in Spain.
‫تقع مدريد في أسبانيا.‬
takaa madrid fi esbania
She speaks Spanish.
‫هي تتكلم الأسبانية.‬
hiya tatakallam elesbania
Peter and Martha are from Berlin.
‫بيتر ومارتا من برلين.‬
biitr wa martaa min berlin
Berlin is in Germany.
‫تقع برلين في ألمانيا.‬
takao berlin fi almania
Do both of you speak German?
‫هل أنتما تتكلمان الألمانية؟‬
hal antoma tatakallamaan elalmania?
London is a capital city.
‫لندن عاصمة.‬
london aasima
Madrid and Berlin are also capital cities.
‫مدريد وبرلين عاصمتان أيضًا.‬
madrid wa berlin asimataan aydhan
Capital cities are big and noisy.
‫العواصم كبيرة وصاخبة.‬
elawassem kabira wa sakhiba
France is in Europe.
‫تقع فرنسا في أوروبا.‬
takaa firansa fi awroba
Egypt is in Africa.
‫تقع مصر في أفريقيا.‬
takaa misr fi afrikia
Japan is in Asia.
‫تقع اليابان في أسيا.‬
takaa elyaban fi asya
Canada is in North America.
‫تقع كندا في أميركا الشمالية.‬
takaa kanada fi amirka eshshamalia
Panama is in Central America.
‫تقع بنما في أميركا الوسطى.‬
takaa banama fi amirka elwesta
Brazil is in South America.
‫تقع البرازيل في أميركا الجنوبية.‬
takaa elbarazil fi amirka eljanobia

Languages and dialects

There are 6,000 to 7,000 different languages worldwide. The number of dialects is of course much higher. But what is the difference between language and dialect? Dialects always have a clearly localized tone. They belong to the regional language varieties. This means dialects are a language form with the narrowest reach. As a general rule, dialects are only spoken, not written. They form their own linguistic system. And they follow their own rules. Theoretically, every language can have several dialects. All dialects fall under the standard language of a country. The standard language is understood by all the people of a country. With it, even speakers of different dialects can communicate with each other. Almost all dialects are becoming less important. You hardly hear dialects being spoken in cities anymore. The standard language is usually spoken at work as well. Therefore, dialect speakers are often said to be simple and uneducated. And yet they can be found at all social levels. So dialect speakers are no less intelligent than others. Quite the opposite! Those who speak in dialect have many advantages. In a language course, for example. Dialect speakers know that there are different linguistic forms. And they have learned to switch quickly between linguistic styles. Therefore, dialect speakers possess a higher competence for variation. They can sense which linguistic style fits with a certain situation. This has even been scientifically proven. So: Have courage in using dialect – it's worth it!

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the South Slavic languages. About 10 million people speak ______. The majority of those people, of course, live in ********. ______ is spoken in other countries as well, however. Among those are Ukraine and Moldova. ______ is one of the oldest documented Slavic languages. It has many specific features too. The similarity to Albanian and Romanian is striking.

These languages are not Slavic languages. There are many parallels nevertheless. Therefore, all of these languages are also denoted as Balkan languages. They have a lot in common, although they are not related to each other. ______ verbs can take on many forms. There is also no infinitive in ______. If you want to learn this interesting language you will soon discover many new things!


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners