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36 [thirty-six]

Public transportation

 


36 [щэкIырэ хырэ]

ЦIыфзещэ транспорт

 

 
Where is the bus stop?
Автобус къэуцупIэр тыдэ щыI?
Avtobus kjeucupIjer tydje shhyI?
Which bus goes to the city centre / center (am.)?
Тара автобусэу къэлэ гупчэм кIорэр?
Tara avtobusjeu kjelje gupchjem kIorjer?
Which bus do I have to take?
Тара гъогоу сызытехьан фаер?
Tara gogou syzyteh'an faer?
 
 
 
 
Do I have to change?
Сэ нэмыкIым ситIысхьажьын фая?
Sje njemykIym sitIysh'azh'yn faja?
Where do I have to change?
Тыдэрэ чIыпIэм нэмыкIым сыщитIысхьажьын фая?
Tydjerje chIypIjem njemykIym syshhitIysh'azh'yn faja?
How much does a ticket cost?
Билетым тхьапш ыуас?
Biletym th'apsh yuas?
 
 
 
 
How many stops are there before downtown / the city centre?
Гупчэм нэс уцупIэ тхьапш щыIэр?
Gupchjem njes ucupIje th'apsh shhyIjer?
You have to get off here.
Мыщ дэжьым о уикIын фае.
Myshh djezh'ym o uikIyn fae.
You have to get off at the back.
О ыкIэкIэ уикIын фае.
O ykIjekIje uikIyn fae.
 
 
 
 
The next train is in 5 minutes.
КъыкIэлъыкIорэ мэшIокур такъикъитфкIэ метром къэсыщт.
KykIjelykIorje mjeshIokur takikitfkIje metrom kjesyshht.
The next tram is in 10 minutes.
КъыкIэлъыкIорэ трамваир такъикъипшIкIэ къэсыщт.
KykIjelykIorje tramvair takikipshIkIje kjesyshht.
The next bus is in 15 minutes.
КъыкIэлъыкIорэ автобусыр такъикъ пшIыкIутфкIэ къэсыщт.
KykIjelykIorje avtobusyr takik pshIykIutfkIje kjesyshht.
 
 
 
 
When is the last train?
Сыдигъуа аужырэ мэшIокур метром зыщыIукIрэр?
Sydigua auzhyrje mjeshIokur metrom zyshhyIukIrjer?
When is the last tram?
Сыдигъуа аужырэ трамваир зыIукIрэр?
Sydigua auzhyrje tramvair zyIukIrjer?
When is the last bus?
Сыдигъуа аужырэ автобусыр зыIукIрэр?
Sydigua auzhyrje avtobusyr zyIukIrjer?
 
 
 
 
Do you have a ticket?
Билет уиIа?
Bilet uiIa?
A ticket? – No, I don’t have one.
Билет? – Хьау, сиIэп.
Bilet? – H'au, siIjep.
Then you have to pay a fine.
Ащыгъум тазыр птын фае.
Ashhygum tazyr ptyn fae.
 
 
 
 

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The development of language

Why we speak with each other is clear. We want to exchange ideas and understand each other. How exactly language originated, on the other hand, is less clear. Various theories exist about this. What's certain is that language is a very old phenomenon. Certain physical traits were a prerequisite for speaking. They were necessary in order for us to form sounds. People as far back as the Neanderthals had the ability to apply their voice. In this way, they could distinguish themselves from animals. Additionally, a loud, firm voice was important for defense. A person could threaten or frighten enemies with it. Back then, tools had already been made and fire had been discovered. This knowledge had to be passed along somehow. Speech was also important for hunting in groups. As early as 2 million years ago there was a simple understanding among people. The first linguistic elements were signs and gestures. But people wanted to be able to communicate in the dark too. More importantly, they also had the need to talk to each other without looking. Therefore, the voice developed, and it replaced the gestures. Language in today's sense is at least 50,000 years old. When Homo sapiens left Africa, they distributed language around the world. The languages separated from each other in the different regions. That is to say, various language families came into being. However, they only contained the fundamentals of language systems. The first languages were much less complex than languages today. They were further developed through grammar, phonology and semantics. It could be said that different languages have different solutions. But the problem was always the same: How do I show what I'm thinking?

 


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