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72 [seventy-two]

to have to do something / must

 


72 [డెబ్బై రెండు]

చెయ్యాలి / తప్పకుండా

 

 
must
తప్పకుండా
Tappakuṇḍā
I must post the letter.
నేను తప్పనిసరిగా ఉత్తరాన్ని పోస్ట్ చేయాలి
Nēnu tappanisarigā uttarānni pōsṭ cēyāli
I must pay the hotel.
నేను తప్పనిసరిగా హోటల్ వాళ్ళకి చెల్లించాలి
Nēnu tappanisarigā hōṭal vāḷḷaki cellin̄cāli
 
 
 
 
You must get up early.
మీరు తప్పనిసరిగా తెల్లవారినే లేవాలి
Mīru tappanisarigā tellavārinē lēvāli
You must work a lot.
మీరు తప్పనిసరిగా ఎక్కువ పని చేయ్యాలి
Mīru tappanisarigā ekkuva pani cēyyāli
You must be punctual.
మీరు తప్పనిసరిగా సమయాన్ని పాటించాలి
Mīru tappanisarigā samayānni pāṭin̄cāli
 
 
 
 
He must fuel / get petrol / get gas (am.).
ఆయన పెట్రోల్ తీసుకోవాలి
Āyana peṭrōl tīsukōvāli
He must repair the car.
ఆయన కారుని బాగుచేయాలి
Āyana kāruni bāgucēyāli
He must wash the car.
ఆయన కారుని శుభ్రం చేయాలి
Āyana kāruni śubhraṁ cēyāli
 
 
 
 
She must shop.
ఆమె తప్పనిసరిగా కొనాలి
Āme tappanisarigā konāli
She must clean the apartment.
ఆమె తప్పనిసరిగా అపార్ట్మెంట్ ని శుభ్రం చేయాలి
Āme tappanisarigā apārṭmeṇṭ ni śubhraṁ cēyāli
She must wash the clothes.
ఆమె తప్పనిసరిగా బట్టలని ఉతకాలి
Āme tappanisarigā baṭṭalani utakāli
 
 
 
 
We must go to school at once.
మనం వెంటనే బడికి వెళ్ళాలి
Manaṁ veṇṭanē baḍiki veḷḷāli
We must go to work at once.
మనం వెంటనే పనికి వెళ్ళాలి
Manaṁ veṇṭanē paniki veḷḷāli
We must go to the doctor at once.
మనం వెంటనే డాక్టర్ వద్దకు వెళ్ళాలి
Manaṁ veṇṭanē ḍākṭar vaddaku veḷḷāli
 
 
 
 
You must wait for the bus.
మనం బస్ కోసం వేచి ఉండాలి
Manaṁ bas kōsaṁ vēci uṇḍāli
You must wait for the train.
మనం ట్రేన్ కోసం వేచి ఉండాలి
Manaṁ ṭrēn kōsaṁ vēci uṇḍāli
You must wait for the taxi.
మనం టాక్సీ కోసం వేచి ఉండాలి
Manaṁ ṭāksī kōsaṁ vēci uṇḍāli
 
 
 
 
 

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Why are there so many different languages?

Today there are more than 6,000 different languages worldwide. This is why we need interpreters and translators. A very long time ago, everyone still spoke the same language. That changed, however, when people began to migrate. They left their African homeland and moved around the world. This spatial separation lead to a linguistic separation as well. Because each people developed its own form of communication. Many different languages evolved from the common proto-language. But man never remained in one place for very long. So the languages became increasingly separated from each other. Somewhere along the line, a common root could no longer be recognized. Furthermore, no people lived in isolation for thousands of years. There was always contact with other peoples. This changed the languages. They took on elements from foreign languages or they merged. Because of this, the progression of the languages never stopped. Therefore, migrations and contact with new peoples explain the multitude of languages. Why languages are so different is another question, however. Every evolution follows certain rules. So there must be a reason for languages being the way they are. For these reasons scientists have been interested in them for years. They would like to know why languages develop differently. In order to research that, one must trace the history of languages. Then one can identify what changed when. It is still unknown what influences the development of languages. Cultural factors appear to be more important than biological factors. That is to say, the history of different peoples shaped their languages. Obviously, languages tell us more than we know…

Guess the language!

______ is in the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Arabic and Aramaic. ______ is the native language of 5 million people. Modern ______ is an artificially created language. It is based on long-extinct ancient ______. The vocabulary and grammar were borrowed in part from other languages. In this way ancient ______ was deliberately converted into a modern standard language. This planned linguistic change is unique worldwide.

The ______ semiotic system consists of a consonantal alphabet. That means that vowels are not written, as a rule. They do not have their own letters. ______ text is read from right to left. Its symbols go back to a 3000 year-old tradition. Whoever learns ______ learns a piece of cultural history at the same time. Give it a try!

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