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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


87 [எண்பத்து ஏழு]

வினைச்சொல்லின் பாங்கியல் சார்ந்த இறந்த காலம்1


We had to water the flowers.
நாங்கள் செடிகளுக்கு தண்ணீர் இறைக்க வேண்டி வந்தது.
nāṅkaḷ ceṭikaḷukku taṇṇīr iṟaikka vēṇṭi vantatu.
We had to clean the apartment.
நாங்கள் வீட்டைச் சுத்தம் செய்ய வேண்டி வந்தது.
Nāṅkaḷ vīṭṭaic cuttam ceyya vēṇṭi vantatu.
We had to wash the dishes.
நாங்கள் பாத்திரங்களை சுத்தம் செய்ய வேண்டி வந்தது.
Nāṅkaḷ pāttiraṅkaḷai cuttam ceyya vēṇṭi vantatu.
Did you have to pay the bill?
நீங்கள் கட்டணச்சீட்டு கட்ட வேண்டி வந்ததா?
Nīṅkaḷ kaṭṭaṇaccīṭṭu kaṭṭa vēṇṭi vantatā?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
நீங்கள் நுழைவுக்கட்டணம் கட்ட வேண்டி வந்ததா?
Nīṅkaḷ nuḻaivukkaṭṭaṇam kaṭṭa vēṇṭi vantatā?
Did you have to pay a fine?
நீங்கள் தண்டனைத்தொகை கட்ட வேண்டி வந்ததா?
Nīṅkaḷ taṇṭaṉaittokai kaṭṭa vēṇṭi vantatā?
Who had to say goodbye?
யார் போக வேண்டி வந்தது?
Yār pōka vēṇṭi vantatu?
Who had to go home early?
யார் முன்னதாக வீட்டுக்கு போக வேண்டி இருந்தது?
Yār muṉṉatāka vīṭṭukku pōka vēṇṭi iruntatu?
Who had to take the train?
யார் ரயிலில் போக வேண்டி இருந்தது?
Yār rayilil pōka vēṇṭi iruntatu?
We did not want to stay long.
எங்களுக்கு நெடுநேரம் தங்க விருப்பமில்லை.
Eṅkaḷukku neṭunēram taṅka viruppamillai.
We did not want to drink anything.
எங்களுக்கு ஏதும் குடிக்க விருப்பமில்லை.
Eṅkaḷukku ētum kuṭikka viruppamillai.
We did not want to disturb you.
நாங்கள் உங்களை தொந்திரவு செய்ய விரும்பவில்லை.
Nāṅkaḷ uṅkaḷai tontiravu ceyya virumpavillai.
I just wanted to make a call.
நான் ஒரு ஃபோன் கால் செய்ய விரும்பினேன்.
Nāṉ oru ḥpōṉ kāl ceyya virumpiṉēṉ.
I just wanted to call a taxi.
எனக்கு ஒரு வாடகைக்கார் கூப்பிட வேண்டி இருந்தது.
Eṉakku oru vāṭakaikkār kūppiṭa vēṇṭi iruntatu.
Actually I wanted to drive home.
நான் வீட்டுக்கு வாகனம் ஓட்டிக்கொண்டு செல்ல விரும்பினேன்.
Nāṉ vīṭṭukku vākaṉam ōṭṭikkoṇṭu cella virumpiṉēṉ.
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
நான் நினைத்தேன் உங்கள் மனைவியைக் கூப்பிட விரும்பினீர்கள் என்று.
Nāṉ niṉaittēṉ uṅkaḷ maṉaiviyaik kūppiṭa virumpiṉīrkaḷ eṉṟu.
I thought you wanted to call information.
நான் நினைத்தேன், செய்தி மேஜையைக் கூப்பிட விரும்பினீர்கள் என்று.
Nāṉ niṉaittēṉ, ceyti mējaiyaik kūppiṭa virumpiṉīrkaḷ eṉṟu.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
எனக்குத் தோன்றியது,நீங்கள் ஒரு பிட்ஸா வரவழைக்க விரும்பினீர்கள் என்று.
Eṉakkut tōṉṟiyatu,nīṅkaḷ oru piṭsā varavaḻaikka virumpiṉīrkaḷ eṉṟu.

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures cause strong reactions. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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